The modern world is characterized by the emergence of capitalism, hence a particular type of economic structure. Yet capitalism is not fixed, but rather a historical variable, which assumes different forms in different times and places. This paper examines the contemporary relationship between capitalism and the theory of capitalism. It would be mistaken to think that Marx’s position simply cannot be reformulated and in the process strengthened. Marxism claims that Marx succeeds in leaving German idealism and philosophy behind. Marx does not in fact leave German idealism behind, as it remains a source of some of his most significant insights but also, especially as concerns the conception of system, its most problematic aspects.
Keywords: Marx, capitalism, globalization, idealism, theory, system.