The article focuses on two major institutions founded by the same scholar, Federigo Enriques (1871-1946): the Italian Philosophical Society (1905- ) and the journal Scientia (1907-1988). Through a series of International Philosophical Congresses, starting in Paris in 1900, a network of philosophers, mathematicians and other scientists came into existence. The opening address given by Enriques to the fourth International Philosophical Congress, in Bologna in 1911, discussed ‘the problem of reality’, a theme particularly attractive to different philosophical traditions and schools, as well as to scientists from different areas. Two of the talks are considered here, one by Enriques himself and the other by Agostino Gemelli, future founder of the Catholic University in Milan. The aim of the article is to highlight the still persistent gap in Italy between the philosophical and scientific environments. While investigating the causes, the article also points to the importance of trying new ways to bridge this gap.
Keywords: Philosophical congresses, philosophical society, science and philosophy, philosophy of science, journal Scientia, religion, realism, experience, Benedetto Croce, Federigo Enriques, Agostino Gemelli