Click here to download

Some Unintended Consequences of Metaphors: The Case of Capital in Intellectual Capital Research
Journal Title: FINANCIAL REPORTING 
Author/s: Giuseppe Marzo 
Year:  2013 Issue: 3-4 Language: English 
Pages:  30 Pg. 111-140 FullText PDF:  255 KB
DOI:  10.3280/FR2013-003006
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The paper focuses on the consequences that the metaphorical use of the concept of capital can generate on research on Intellectual Capital. Consequences here analysed refer to: 1) the understanding of IC as being composed of homogenous and separable units; 2) those that are assets; 3) those expected to be under the proprietorship of someone; and 4) those expressible in monetary terms on the balance sheet. The analysis of consequences also offers some insights into overcoming the capital metaphor in favour of a sharper differentiation between the concepts at the basis of the traditional notion of capital, and the ones at the basis of IC.
Keywords: Metaphor; theory of firm; resource-based; view. First submission: 26 March 2013 accepted: 5 March 2014.

  1. Abeysekera I. (2011), The relation of intellectual capital disclosure strategies and market value in two political settings, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 12(2), pp. 319-338,, DOI: 10.1108/14691931111123449
  2. Aime F., Johnson S., Ridge J. W. and Hill A. D. (2010), The routine may be stable but the advantage is not: competitive implications of key employee mobility, Strategic Management Journal, 31(1), pp. 75-87,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.809
  3. Alcaniz L., Gomez-Bezares F. and Roslender R. (2011), Theoretical perspectives on intellectual capital: A backward look and a proposal for going forward, Accounting Forum, 35, pp. 104-117,, DOI: 10.1016/j.accfor.2011.03.004
  4. Al-Horani A., Pope P. F. and Stark A. W. (2003), Research and Development Activity and Expected Returns in the United Kingdom, European Finance Review, 7(1), pp. 27-46,, DOI: 10.1023/A:1022504029943
  5. Ambrosini V. and Bowman C. (2010), The Impact of Causal Ambiguity on Competitive Advantage and Rent Appropriation, British Journal of Management, 21, 939-953,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2009.00644.x
  6. Anagnostopoulou S. C. and Levis M. (2008), R&D and Performance Persistence: Evidence from the United Kingdom, The International Journal of Accounting, 43(3), pp. 293-320,, DOI: 10.1016/j.intacc.2008.06.004
  7. Andriessen D. and Van den Boom M. (2007), Asian and western intellectual capital in encounter, Proceedings of the IC-Congress, INHOLLAND University of professional education, Haarlem, The Netherlands, 3-4 May 2007.
  8. Andriessen D. G. (2006), On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: a textual analysis, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 7(1), pp. 93-110,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930610639796
  9. Andriessen D. G. (2008), Stuff or love; how metaphors direct our efforts to manage knowledge in organisations’, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 6(1), pp.5-12,, DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500169
  10. Andriessen D. G. (2004), Making Sense of Intellectual Capital. (Burlington: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann).
  11. Andriessen D. G. and Stam C. D. (2011), Introduction: Intellectual capital: the future of business navigation, International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 8(1), pp. 1-4.
  12. Appuhami B. A. R. (2007), The impact of intellectual capital on investors’ capital gains on shares: an empirical investigation of Thai banking, finance and insurance sector, International Management Review, 3(2), pp. 14-25.
  13. Arenas T. and Lavanderos L. (2008), Intellectual capital: object or process?, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 9(1), pp. 77-85,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930810845812
  14. Arthur W. B. (1994), Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).
  15. Ashton R. H. (2005), Intellectual Capital and Value Creation: A Review, Journal of Accounting Literature, 24, pp. 53-134.
  16. Barney J. B. (1986), Strategic factor markets – expectations, luck, and business strategy, Management Science, 32(10), 1230-1241,, DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.32.10.1231
  17. Barney J. B. (2001), Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes, Academy of Management Review, 26(1), pp. 41-56,, DOI: 10.5465/AMR.2001.4011938
  18. Baron J. (2013), Rescuing the Bundle of Rights Metaphor in Property Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Research Paper No. 2013-22.
  19. Becker G. S. (1962), Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis, Journal of Political Economy, 70, pp. 9-49,, DOI: 10.1086/258724
  20. Bismuth A. and Tojo Y. (2008), Creating value from intellectual assets, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 9(2), pp. 228-245,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930810870319
  21. Blyler M. and Coff R. W. (2003), Research Notes and Commentaries Dynamic Capabilities, Social Capital, and Rent Appropriation: Ties that Split Pies, Strategic Management Journal, 24(7), pp. 677-686,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.327
  22. Bontis N. (2001), Assessing knowledge assets: a review of the models used to measure intellectual capital, International Journal of Management Reviews, 3, pp.41-69,, DOI: 10.1111/1468-2370.00053
  23. Bontis N. and Choo C. W. (2002), The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge. (Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press).
  24. Bontis N., Dragonetti N.C., Jacobsen K. and Roos G. (1999), The knowledge toolbox: a review of the tools available to measure and manage intangible resources, European Management Journal, 17, pp. 391-402,, DOI: 10.1016/S0263-2373(99)00019-5
  25. Bratianu C. and Andriessen D. (2008), Knowledge as energy: a metaphorical analysis, in: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Knowledge Management, Southampton Solent University, UK, 4-5 September 2008, pp. 75-82. (Reading: Academic Publishing).
  26. Brooking A. (1996), Intellectual Capital: Core Assets for the Third Millennium Enterprise. (London: Thomson Business Press).
  27. Caddy I. (2000), Intellectual capital: recognizing both assets and liabilities. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 1(2), pp. 120-146,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930010377469
  28. Cañibano L., García-Ayuso M. and Sânchez P. (2000), Accounting for Intangibles: A Literature Review, Journal of AccounitngAccounting Literature, 19, pp. 102-130.
  29. Carlucci D., Marr B. and Schiuma G. (2004), The knowledge value chain – how intellectual capital impacts business performance, International Journal of Technology Management, 27(6-7), pp. 575-590,, DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.2004.004903
  30. Carmeli A. and Tishler A. (2004), The relationships between intangible organisational elements and organisational performance, Strategic Management Journal, 25(13), pp. 1257-1278,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.428
  31. Catasús B. and Chaminade C. (2007), Intellectual capital: paradoxes and expansions in B. Catasús and C. Chaminade (eds), Intellectual Capital Revisited: Paradoxes in the Knowledge Intensive Organization. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar), pp. 1-7.
  32. Catasús B., Ersson S., Gröjer J. E. and Wallentin F. Y. (2010), What gets measured gets… on indicating, mobilizing and acting, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 20(4), pp. 505-521,, DOI: 10.1108/09513570710762566
  33. Choong K. K. (2008), Intellectual capital: definitions, categorization and reporting models, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 9(4), pp. 609-638,, DOI: 10.1108/ 14691930810913186
  34. Coff R. W. (2010), The Coevolution of Rent Appropriation and Capability Development, Strategic Management Journal, 31(7), pp. 711-733.
  35. David P. A. (1985), Clio and the economics of Qwerty., American Economic Review, 75(2), pp. 332-337.
  36. Dean A. and Kretschmer M. (2007), Can Ideas Be Capital? Factors of Production in the Postindustrial Economy: A Review and Critique, Academy of Management Review, 32(2), pp. 573-594,, DOI: 10.5465/AMR.2007.24351866
  37. Dierickx I. and Cool K. (1989), Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage, Management Science, 35(12), pp. 1504-1511,, DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.35.12.1514
  38. Donaldson T. and Preston L. E. (1995), The stakeholder theory of the corporation: concepts, evidence and implications, Academy of Management Review, 20(1), pp. 65-91,, DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1995.9503271992
  39. Dosi G. (1988), The sources, procedures, and microeconomic effects of innovation, Journal of Economic Literature, 26(3), pp. 1120-1171.
  40. Dosi G. (1994), Firm, Boundaries of the in G. M. Hodgson, W. J. Samuels and M. R. Tool (eds), The Elgar Companion to Institutional and Evolutionary Economics. (Aldershot: Edward Elgar) Vol. 1, pp. 229-237.
  41. Dumay J. C. (2008), Narrative disclosure of intellectual capital: A “structurational” analysis, Management Research News, 31(7), pp. 518-537,, DOI: 10.1108/01409170810876080
  42. Dumay J. C. (2012), Grand theories as barriers to using IC concepts, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 13(1), pp. 4-15,, DOI: 10.1108/14691931211196187
  43. Dumay J. and Rooney J. (2011), Measuring for managing? An IC practice case study, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 12(3), pp. 344-355,, DOI: 10.1108/14691931111154670
  44. Eberhart A., Maxwell W. and Siddique A. (2004), An Examination of Long-term Abnormal Stock Returns and Operating Performance following RandD Increases, Journal of Finance, 59(2), pp. 623-650,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6261.2004.00644.x
  45. Feiwell G. R. (1975), The Intellectual capital of Michal Kalecki: a study in economic theory and policy. (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennesse Press).
  46. Fernández E., Montes J. M. and Vázquez C. J. (2000), Typology and strategic analysis of intangible resources: A resource-based approach, Technovation, 20(2), pp. 81-92,, DOI: 10.1016/S0166-4972(99)00115-7
  47. Ferraro F., Pfeffer J., Sutton R. I., (2005), Economics language and assumptions: How theories can become self-fulfilling, Academy of Management Review, 30(1), pp. 8-24,, DOI: 10.5465/AMR.2005.15281412
  48. Foss K. and Foss N. J. (2005), Resources and transaction costs: how property rights economics furthers the resource-based view, Strategic Management Journal, 26, pp. 541-553,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.465
  49. Foss N. J. (1993), Theories of the firm: Contractual and competence perspectives, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 3(2), pp. 127-144,, DOI: 10.1007/BF01213830
  50. Foss N. J. (1998), The competence-based approach: Veblenian ideas in the modern theory of the firm, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 22(4), pp. 479-495,, DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.cje.a013730
  51. Fransman M. (1994), Information, knowledge, vision and theories of the firm, Industrial and Corporate Change, 33, pp. 713-757,, DOI: 10.1093/icc/3.3.713
  52. Gadamar H. G. (1975), Truth and Method. (London: Sheed and Ward).
  53. Galbraith J. K. (1967), The New Industrial State. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin).
  54. Gentner D. (1989), The mechanisms of analogical reasoning in S. Vosniadou and A. Ortony (eds), Similarity and Analogical Reasoning. (New York: Cambridge University Press) pp. 199-241,, DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511529863.011
  55. Giddens A. (1987), Social Theory and Modern Sociology. (Cambridge: Polity Press).
  56. Gowthorpe C. (2009), Wider still and wider? A critical discussion of intellectual capital recognition, measurement and control in a boundary theoretical context, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 20, pp. 823-834,, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpa.2008.09.005
  57. Grant R. M. (1996), Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: Organizational capability as knowledge integration, Organization Science, 7(4), pp. 375-387,, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.7.4.375
  58. Green A. (2007), Intangible assets in plain business language, VINE, 37(3), pp. 238-48,, DOI: 10.1108/03055720710825564
  59. Grindley P. C. and Teece D. J. (1997), Managing Intellectual Capital: Licensing and Cross-Licensing in Semiconductors and Electronics, California Management Review, 39(2), pp. 8-41,, DOI: 10.2307/41165885
  60. Guthrie J. (2001), The management, measurement and the reporting of intellectual capital, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2, pp. 27-41,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930110380473
  61. Guthrie J., Petty R., Yongvanich K. and Ricceri F. (2004), Using Content Analysis as a Research Method to Inquire into Intellectual Capital Reporting, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(2), pp. 282-293,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930410533704
  62. Guthrie J., Petty R., Ferrier F. and Wells R. (1999), There is no Accounting for Intellectual Capital in Australia: A review of annual reporting practices and the internal measurement of intangibles, paper presented at the International Symposium Measuring and Reporting Intellectual Capital: Experiences, Issues and Prospects, OECD, Amsterdam, June.
  63. Guthrie J., Ricceri F. and Dumay J. (2012), Reflections and projections: a decade of intellectual capital accounting research, British Accounting Review, 44(2), pp. 68-82,, DOI: 10.1016/j.bar.2012.03.004
  64. Hart O. (1995), Firms, contracts, and financial structure. (Oxford: Clarendon Press), DOI: 10.1093/0198288816.001.0001
  65. Herremans I. M. and Isaac R. G. (2004), The Intellectual Capital Realization Process (ICRP): An Application of the Resource-based View of the Firm, Journal of Managerial Issues, XVI(2), pp. 217-231.
  66. Herremans I. M., Isaac R. and Bays A. (2007), Tracing intellectual capital cash flows, Research executive summaries series, CIMA, 3(2).
  67. Heyne D. (1991), The Economic Way of Thinking. (London: Macmillan).
  68. Hodgson G. M. (1998), Competence and contract in the theory of the firm, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 35(2), pp. 179-201,, DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2681(98)00053-5
  69. Hussi T. and Ahonen G. (2002), Managing intangible assets – A question of integration and delicate balance. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3(3), pp. 277-286,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930210435615
  70. Husted K., Gammelgaard J. and Michailova S. (2005), Knowledge-sharing behaviour and postacquisition integration failure in A. F. Buono and F. Poulfelt (eds), Challenges and Issues in Knowledge Management Charlotte. (NC: Information Age Publishing) pp. 209-226.
  71. International Accounting Standards Board – IASB (2009), Intangible assets. International Accounting Standards No. 38. London (revised).
  72. Johnson W. H. A. (1999), An integrative taxonomy of intellectual capital: measuring the stock and flow of intellectual capital components in the firm, International Journal of Technology Management, 18(5-8), pp. 562-575,, DOI: 10.1504/IJTM.1999.002788
  73. Junni P. and Sarala R. M. (2011), Causal ambiguity, cultural integration and partner attractiveness as determinants of knowledge transfer: evidence from Finnish acquisitions, European Journal of International Management, 5(4), pp. 346-372,, DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2011.040910
  74. Kamath G. B. (2008), Intellectual capital and corporate performance in Indian pharmaceutical industry, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 9(4), pp. 684-704,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930810913221
  75. Kaplan R. S. and Norton D. P. (1992), The balanced scorecard measures that drive performance, Harvard Business Review, January-February, pp. 71-79.
  76. Kaufmann L. and Schneider Y. (2004), Intangibles: a synthesis of current research, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(3), pp. 366-388,, DOI: 10.1108/ 14691930410550354
  77. Kianto A. (2007), What do we really mean by the dynamic dimension of intellectual capital?, International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 4(4), pp. 342-356,, DOI: 10.1504/IJLIC.2007.016332
  78. Kim J. and Mahoney J. T. (2006), How property rights economics furthers the resource-based view: Resources, transactions costs and entrepreneurial discovery, International Journal of Strategic Change Management, 1, pp. 40-52,, DOI: 10.1504/IJSCM.2006.011100
  79. Knight F. H. (1921), Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. (New York: Houghton Mifflin).
  80. Lakoff G. and Johnson M. (1980), Metaphors We Live by. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press).
  81. Lakoff G. and Turner M. (1989), More than Cool Reason. (Chicago-London: The University of Chicago Press), DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001
  82. Lazonick W. (1994), The integration of theory and history: Methodology and ideology in Schumpeter’s economics in L. Magnusson (ed), Evolutionary and Neo-Schumpeterian Approaches to Economics. (Boston, MA: Kluwer) pp. 245-263,, DOI: 10.1007/978-0-585-35155-1_9
  83. Leonard-Barton D. (1992), Core capabilities and core rigidities: a paradox in managing new product development, Strategic Management Journal, 13, pp. 111-125,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250131009
  84. Lerro A. and Schiuma G. (2013), Intellectual capital assessment practices: overview and managerial implications, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 14(3), pp. 352-359,, DOI: 10.1108/JIC-03-2013-0041
  85. Lev B. (2001), Intangibles: Management, Measurement, and Reporting. (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution).
  86. Lev B., Cañibano L. and Marr B. (2005), An Accounting Perspective on Intellectual Capital in B. Marr (ed), Perspectives on Intellectual Capital. (Oxford), pp. 42-55,, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-7506-7799-8.50008-5
  87. Lev B. and Sougiannis T. (1996), The Capitalization, Amortization and Value-relevance of RandD, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 21(1), pp. 107-138,, DOI: 10.1016/0165-4101(95)00410-6
  88. Lev B., Zarowin P. (1999), The Boundaries of Financial Reporting and How to Extend Them, Journal of Accounting Research, 37, pp. 353-385,, DOI: 10.2307/2491413
  89. Lev B., Radhakrishnan S. and Zhang W. (2009), Organization Capital, Abacus, 45(3), pp. 275-298,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6281.2009.00289.x
  90. Lewin A. Y., Long C. P. and Carroll T. N. (1999), The Coevolution of New Organizational Forms, Organization Science, 10(5), pp. 535-550,, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.10.5.535
  91. Llewelyn S. (2003), What counts as “theory” in qualitative management and accounting research? Introducing five levels of theorizing, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 16(4), pp. 662-708,, DOI: 10.1108/ 09513570310492344
  92. Lusch R. F. and Harvey M. G. (1999), Balancing the intellectual capital books: intangible liabilities, European Management Journal, 17(1), pp. 85-92,, DOI: 10.1016/S0263-2373(98)00065-6
  93. Lynn B. (1998), The management of intellectual capital: the issues and the practice. (The Society of Management Accountants of Canada, Hamilton, Ontario).
  94. Mahoney J. T. and Pandian J. R. (1992), The Resource-Based View Within the Conversation of Strategic Management, Strategic Management Journal, 13(5), pp. 363-380,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250130505
  95. Molodchik M., Shakina E. and Bykova A. (2013), Intellectual capital transformation evaluating model, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 13(4), pp. 444-461,, DOI: 10.1108/14691931211276089
  96. Marr B. (ed) (2005), Perspectives on Intellectual Capital (Boston: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann).
  97. Marr B. and Chatzkel J. (2004), Intellectual capital at the crossroads, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(2), pp. 224-229,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930410533650
  98. Marr B., Schiuma G. and Neely A. (2004), The dynamics of value creation: mapping your intellectual performance drivers, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(2), pp. 312-325,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930410533722
  99. Marzo G. (2011), Doctor Jekyll and Mister Hyde in the Management of Intangibles, Paper presented at The 7th Interdisciplinary Workshop On “Intangibles, Intellectual Capital and Extra-Financial Information, Warsaw, Poland, September 29-30, 2011. Downloadable at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1926633.
  100. Marzo G. (2013), The market-to-book value gap and the accounting fallacy, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 14(4), pp. 564-581,, DOI: 10.1108/JIC-10-2012-0094
  101. Marzo G. (2014), Improving internal consistency in IC research and practice: IC and the theory of the firm, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 15(1) (forthcoming),, DOI: 10.1108/JIC-03-2013-0026
  102. Mitchell van der Zahn J.-L.W., Singh I. and Heniro J. (2007), Is there an association between intellectual capital disclosure, underpricing and long-run performance?, Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, 11(3), pp. 178-213,, DOI: 10.1108/14013380710843773
  103. Moldaschl M. and Fischer D. (2004), Beyond the Management View, Management Revue, 15(1), pp. 122-151.
  104. Mouritsen J., Larsen H. T. and Bukh P. N. D. (2001a), Valuing the future: intellectual capital supplements at Skandia, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 14(4), pp. 399-422,, DOI: 10.1108/09513570110403434
  105. Mouritsen J., Larsen H. T. and Bukh P. N. D. (2001b), Intellectual capital and the ‘capable firm’: narrating, visualising and numbering for managing knowledge, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 26(7-8), pp. 735-62,, DOI: 10.1016/S0361-3682(01)00022-8
  106. Mouritsen J. and Roslender R. (2009), Critical intellectual capital, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 20(7), pp. 801-803,, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpa.2009.08.004
  107. Nassau W. Snr. (1836), An Outline of the Science of Political Economy. (London: George Allen and Unwin).
  108. Nonaka I. and Takeuchi H. (1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. (New York: Oxford University Press).
  109. Onida P. (1971), Economia d’azienda. (Torino: Utet).
  110. Penman S. H. (2009), Accounting for Intangible Assets: There is Also an Income Statement, Center for Excellence in Accounting and security Analysis. (New York: Columbia Business School).
  111. Penman S. H. (2011), Accounting for value. (New York: Columbia Business School).
  112. Petty R. and Guthrie J. (2000), Intellectual capital literature review, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 1, pp. 155-176,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930010348731
  113. Powell T. C. (1995), Total Quality Management as Competitive Advantage: A Review and Empirical Study, Strategic Management Journal, 16(1), pp. 15-37,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250160105
  114. Prahalad C. K. and Hamel G. (1990), The core competences of the corporation, Harvard Business Review, 68, May-June, pp. 79-91.
  115. Rechberg I. and Syed J. (2013), Ethical issues in knowledge management: conflict of knowledge ownership, Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(6), pp. 828-847.
  116. Reed K. K., Lubatkin M. and Srinivasan N. (2006), Proposing and Testing an Intellectual Capital-Based View of the Firm, Journal of Management Studies, 43(4), pp. 867-893,, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00614.x
  117. Riahi-Belkaoui A. (2003), Intellectual capital and firm performance of US multinational firms: A study of the resource-based and stakeholder views, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 4(2), pp. 215-226,, DOI: 10.1108/14691930310472839
  118. Romer P. (1990), Endogenous technological change, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), pp. S71-S102,, DOI: 10.1086/261725
  119. Roos J., Roos G., Dragonetti G. C., Dragonetti N. C. and Edvinsson L. (1997), Intellectual Capital: Navigating in the New Business Landscape. (London: Macmillan).
  120. Roslender R. and Fincham R. (2001), Thinking critically about intellectual capital accounting, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 14(4), pp. 383-398,, DOI: 10.1108/09513570110403425
  121. Roslender R. and Fincham R. (2004), Intellectual capital: Who counts, controls?, Accounting and the Public Interest, 4, pp. 1-23,, DOI: 10.2308/api.2004.4.1.1
  122. Samaniego R. M. (2013), Knowledge spillovers and intellectual property rights, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 31, pp. 50-63,, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijindorg.2012.11.001
  123. Schiuma G., Lerro A. and Sanitate D. (2008), Intellectual capital dimensions of Ducati’s turnaround – exploring knowledge assets grounding a change management program, International Journal of Innovation Management, 12(2), pp. 161-193,, DOI: 10.1142/S1363919608001935
  124. Schreyöegg G. and Kliesch-Eberl M. (2007), How dynamic can organizational capabilities be? Towards a dual-process model of capability dynamization, Strategic Management Journal, 28(9), pp. 913-933,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.613
  125. Schultz T. (1961), Investment in human capital, American Economic Review, 51, pp. 1-17.
  126. Schulze W. (1994), The two schools of thought in resource-based theory, Advances in Strategic Management, 10, pp. 127-152.
  127. Simonin B. L. (2004), An empirical investigation of the process of knowledge transfer in international strategic alliances, Journal of International Business Studies, 35(5), pp. 407-427,, DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400091
  128. Sougiannis T. (1994), The Accounting Based Valuation of Corporate R&D, The Accounting Review, 69(1), pp. 44-68.
  129. Stam C. D. (2009), Intellectual liabilities: lessons from The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 39(1), pp. 92-104.
  130. Stewart T. A. and Kirsch S. (1991), Brain Power – How Intellectual Capital Is Becoming America’s Most Valuable Asset, Fortune, June 3.
  131. Stewart T. A. (2001), The Wealth of Knowledge: Intellectual Capital and the Twenty-First Century Organization. (New York: Doubleday/Currency).
  132. St-Pierre J. and Audet J. (2011), Intangible assets and performance. Analysis on manufacturing SMEs, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 12(2), pp. 202-223,, DOI: 10.1108/14691931111123395
  133. Sveiby K. E. (1997), The New Organisational Wealth: Managing and measuring knowledge based assets. (San Francisco: Berrett Kochler Publisher).
  134. Sveiby K. E. (2010), Methods for measuring intangible assets, available at: www.sveiby.com/articles/IntangibleMethods.htm (accessed 01 February 2013).
  135. Sveiby K. E. (2001), A knowledge-based theory of the firm to guide in strategy formulation, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2(4), pp. 344-358.
  136. Szulanski G. (1996), Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm, Strategic Management Journal, 17, pp. 27-43,, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1040.0096
  137. Szulanski G., Cappetta R. and Jensen R. J. (2004), When and how trustworthiness matters: knowledge transfer and the moderating effect of causal ambiguity, Organization Science, 15(5), pp. 600-613.
  138. Teece D. J. and Pisano G. (1994), The dynamic capabilities of firms: An introduction, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3(3), pp. 537-556,, DOI: 10.1093/icc/3.3.537-a
  139. Teece D. J., Pisano G. and Shuen A. (1997), Firm capabilities, resources and the concept of strategy, Economic Analysis and Policy Working Paper EAP-38. Institute of Management, Innovation and Organization, University of California.
  140. Upton W. S. (2001), Business and Financial Reporting, Challenges from the New Economy (Vol. 219-A), Financial Accounting Series, Financial Accounting Standards Board.
  141. Vargo S. L. and Lusch R. (2004), Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), pp. 1-17,, DOI: 10.1509/jmkg.68.1.1.24036
  142. Walsh J. P. (1988), Selectivity and selective perception – an investigation of managers belief structures and information-processing, Academy of Management Journal, 31(4), pp. 873-896,, DOI: 10.2307/256343
  143. Webster E. (1999), The Economics of Intangible Investment. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar).
  144. Wernerfelt B. (1984), A resource-based view of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, 5, pp. 171-180,, DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250050207
  145. Winter S. G., Szulanski G., Ringov D. and Jensen R. J. (2011), Reproducing Knowledge: Inaccurate Replication and Failure in Franchise Organizations, Organization Science, 23(3), pp. 672-685,, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1110.0663
  146. Wyatt A. (2002), Accounting for Intangibles: The Great Divide Between Obscurity in Innovation Activities and the Balance Sheet, Singapore Economic Review, 42(1), pp. 83-117.
  147. Yu A. and Humphreys P. (2013), From measuring to learning? – Probing the evolutionary path of IC research and practice, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 14(1), pp. 26-47,, DOI: 10.1108/14691931311289002
  148. Zambon S. (ed), (2003), Study on the Measurement of Intangible Assets and Associated Reporting Practices, prepared for the Commission Of The European Communities Enterprise Directorate General.
  149. Zappa G. (1956), Le produzioni nell’economia delle imprese. Tomo I. (Milano: Giuffrè).
  150. Zéghal D. and Maaloul A. (2011), The accounting treatment of intangibles – A critical review of the literature, Accounting Forum, 35, pp. 262-274,, DOI: 10.1016/j.accfor.2011.04.003
  151. Zingales L. (2008), Corporate Governance in S. N. Durlauf and L. E. Blume (eds), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics,, DOI: 10.1057/9780230226203.0323

Giuseppe Marzo, in "FINANCIAL REPORTING" 3-4/2013, pp. 111-140, DOI:10.3280/FR2013-003006

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content