Click here to download

Treatment of Tourette’s Syndrome and Tic Disorders in infancy and adolescence: presentation of a case
Author/s: Monica Mercuriu, Carlo Buonanno 
Year:  2014 Issue: 34 Language: Italian 
Pages:  17 Pg. 125-141 FullText PDF:  113 KB
DOI:  10.3280/QPC2014-034009
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

The tic disorders and Tourette’s syndrome are classified in the DSM-V as disorderschildhood- onset adolescence. They typically appear between 5 and 6 years old, and before the age of 18, and are characterized by the presence of tics, rapid body movements, recurrent, non-rhythmic or vocalizations that occur in a non constant intensity, frequency and duration. Tourette’s syndrome, which is part of tic disorders, is characterized by the combination of motor tics (lasting more than one year) and vocal tics. It’s a high comorbidity with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and ADHD (Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), conditions that may precede or appear later in the event of tics in children. These disorders have a substantial resonance in the quality of life of children who are affected, negatively influencing the development of emotional and relational. Only a low percentage of these cases leads to the treatment and a good portion is not correctly diagnosed. In this article you will learn the treatment of a patient 10 years old suffering from Tourette’s Syndrome, discusses the intervention strategies, the techniques used and the maintenance factors of the disorder.
Keywords: Tourette’s syndrome, chronic tic disorders; habit reversal training, obsessive compulsive disorder.

  1. Achenbach T.M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press., DOI: 10.1542/pir.21-8-26
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition(text revision). Washington, DC: Author., DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.49
  3. Araki H., Nakai Y. (1990). Behavior therapy for a woman suffering from Gilles de la TourettÈs syndrome for 20 years. Japanese Journal of Behavior Therapy, 16: 27-36., DOI: 10.1177/014544550527923
  4. Azrin N.H., Nunn R.G., Frantz S.E. (1980). HR vs. negative practice treatment of nervoustics. Behavior Therapy, 11: 169-178., DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80333-
  5. Azrin N.H., Peterson A.L. (1988a). Behavior therapy for TourettÈs syndrome and tic disorders. In: Cohen D.J., Bruun R.D., Leckman J.F., editors, Tourette’s syndrome and tic disorders: Clinical understanding and treatment. New York: Wiley, pp. 237-255., DOI: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70348-
  6. Banaschewski T., Woerner W., Rothenberger A. (2003). Premonitory sensory phenomena and suppressibility of tics in Tourette syndrome: Developmental aspects in children and
  7. adolescents. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 45: 700-703., DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2003.tb00873.xBarembaumP.,BryantB.(1995).TADTestdell’ansiaedepressionenell’infanziaeadolescenza.Trento:Erickson.doi:10.3280/PDS2009-00300
  8. Bliss J. (1980). Sensory experiences of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37 (12): 1343-1347. In: Shytle R.D., Silver A.A., Sanberg P.R., Clinical assessment on Tourette’s Syndrome. Motor Activity and Movement Disorders Contemporary Neuroscience, pp. 343-364., DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59259-469-6_13.doi:10.100/archpsyc.1980.01.78025002900
  9. Bruun R.D. (1984). Gilles de al Tourette’s syndrome: An overview of clinical experience. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23: 126-133., DOI: 10.1097/00004583-198403000-0000
  10. Buonanno C., Perdighe C., Mancini F. (2009). La psicoterapia del disturbo ossessivo compulsivo in età evolutiva. Giornale Italiano di Neuropsichiatria Infantile, 23(3): 290-308.
  11. Cappo B.M., Holmes D.S. (1984). The utility of prolonged respiratory exhalation for reducing physiological and psychological arousal in non-threatening and threatening situations.
  12. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 28: 265-373. Consultabile su MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  13. Clarke M.A., Bray M.A., Kehle T.J., Truscott S.D. (2001). Aschool-based intervention designed to reduce the frequency of tics in children with Tourette’s syndrome. School Psychology Review, 30: 11-22.
  14. Comings D.E. (1990). Tourette syndrome and human behavior. Duarte, CA: Hope Press.
  15. Cornoldi C., Gardinale A., Masi M., Pettenò L. (2010). Impulsività e autocontrollo. Trento: Erickson.
  16. Deckersbach T., Rauch S., Buhlmann U., Wilhelm S. (2006). Habit reversal versus supportive psychotherapy in Tourette’s disorder: A randomized controlled trial and predictors of treatment response. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44: 1079-1090. PubMed.
  17. Doleys D.M., Kurtz P.S. (1974). A behavioral treatment program for the Gilles de la TS. Psychological Reports, 35: 43-48. In: Nathan H., Azrin A., Peterson L. (1988). Habit reversal for the treatment of Tourette syndrome. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 4: 347-351., DOI: 10.1016/0005-7967(88)90089-
  18. Himle M.B.,Woods D.W., Piacentini J.C., Walkup J.T. (2006). Brief review of habit reversal training for Tourette syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 21: 719-725., DOI: 10.2310/7010.2006.0015
  19. Jenike M.A. (2001). An update on obsessive-compulsive disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 65: 4-25., DOI: 10.1521/bumc.
  20. Isola L., Mancini F. (a cura di) (2007). Psicoterapia cognitiva dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  21. Leckman J.F., King R.A., Cohen D.J. (1999). Tics and tic disorders. In: Leckman J.F., Cohen D.J., editors, Tourette’s syndrome – tics, obsessions, compulsions: Developmental psychopathology and clinical care. New York: Wiley, pp. 23-42., DOI: 10.1016/S0387
  22. 7604(03)90004-0
  23. Leckman J.F., Walker D.E., Cohen D.J. (1993). Premonitory urges in Tourette’s syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150: 98-102. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA.
  24. Mancini F., Gangemi A., Perdighe C., Marini C. (2008). Not Just Right Experience: Is it influenced by guilt emotion? Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39, 2: 162-176., DOI: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.02.00
  25. Peterson A.L., Azrin N.H. (1992). An evaluation of behavioral treatments for Tourett syndrome. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30: 167-174., DOI: 10.1016/0005-7967(92)90140-C
  26. Scahill L., Riddle M.A., McSwiggin-Hardin M., Goodman W.K., Ort S.I., King R.A. et al. (1997). Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(6): 844-852., DOI: 10.1097/00004583-199706000-0002
  27. Spessot A.L., Peterson B.S. (2006). Tourette’s syndrome: A multifactorial, developmental psychopathology. In: Cicchetti D., Cohen D.J., editors, Developmental psychopathology, vol 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2nd ed., pp. 436-469. In:
  28. Woods D.W., Piacentini J., Walkup J.T. (2007). Treating Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: A Guide for Practitioners. New York: Guilford Press.
  29. Tolchard B. (1995). Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome using behavioural psychotherapy: A single case example. Journal of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 2: 233-236., DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.1995.tb00062.
  30. Verdellen C.W., Keijsers G.P., Cath D.C., Hoogduin C.A. (2004). Exposure with response prevention versus habit reversal in Tourettes’s syndrome: A controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42: 501-511., DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.08.00
  31. Walkup J.T., Khan S., Schuerholz L., Paik Y., Leckman J.F., Schultz R. (1999). Phenomenology and natural history of tic-related ADHD and learning disabilities. In: Leckman J.F., Cohen D.J., editors, Tourette’s syndrome – tics, obsessions, compulsions: Developmental pathology and clinical care. New York: Wiley, pp. 63-79., DOI: 10.1016/S0387-7604(03)90004-
  32. Wilhelm S., Deckersbach T., Coffey B.J., Bohne A., Peterson A.L., Baer L. (2003). Habit reversal versus supportive psychotherapy for Tourette’s disorder: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160: 1175-1177., DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.6.117
  33. Woods D., Piacentini J., Himle M., Chang S. (2005). Initial development and psychometric properties of the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) in children with Tourette syndrome. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26: 1-7. www.journals. Woods D.W., Watson T.S., Wolfe E., Twohig M.P., Friman P.C. (2001). Analyzing the
  34. influence of tic-related talk on vocal and motor tics in children with Tourette’s syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34: 353-356. Pubmed.
  35. Zohar A.H., Apter A., King R.A., Pauls D.L., Jeckman J.F., Cohen D.J. (1999). Epidemiological studies. In: Leckman J.F., Cohen D.J., editors, Tourette’s syndrome – tics, obsessions, compulsions: Developmental pathology and clinical care. New York: Wiley, pp. 177-193., DOI: 10.1016/S0387-7604(03)90004-

Monica Mercuriu, Carlo Buonanno, Treatment of Tourette’s Syndrome and Tic Disorders in infancy and adolescence: presentation of a case in "QUADERNI DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA" 34/2014, pp. 125-141, DOI:10.3280/QPC2014-034009


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content