Health Psychology and gender: a troubled relationship. Current situation and possible developments This article is based on the contribution of Rose Capdevila; in particular to the construction of gender and motherhood in the context of health psychology but with a specific focus on "gender and health". According to the different meanings attributed to the concept of sex (referred to biological factors) and gender (which refers to the socio-cultural construction of sex), it is emphasized that dealing with health / disease in a gender perspective does not mean deal only issues that relate specifically to the female sex, but involves all the biopsycho- social dimensions that occur differently for men and women. The gender medicine, which is presented in the article, aims to develop research, both medical and pharmacological, in order to obtain a more effective and appropriate therapeutic proposal, and to specify, for the two gender, bio-psycho-social factors underlying the different rates of mortality and morbidity. On these topics, health psychology could bring interesting contributions by expanding the research and the psychosocial reflection. In conclusion, the article considers that a transdisciplinary perspective is necessary to develop the knowledge on these issues and to guarantee policies favoring health and wellbeing.