In this article the authors expose a brief review on the different forms and ways in which the bullying phenomenon can arise, focusing particularly on the risk factors such as: the individual, temperamental and personological style, family patterns and the quality of early attachment relationships. After reviewing some preventive programs usually applied in scolastic and community contexts whose main purpose is stopping the bullying phenomenon, the authors introduce some clinical considerations on the therapeutic approches focused instead on improving attachment relationships, mental representation and on reducing symptoms caused by traumatic bullying experiences. The cognitive-evolutionist therapy and EMDR therapy are considered, by scientific literature, the evidence based treatments in psychological therapy of disfuncional internal working models and traumatic experiences. These treatments are promoted in association and continuity with the already implemented school-based bullying interventions.
Keywords: Bullying; Risk Factors; Attachment Style; Cognitive-Evolutional Therapy; Trauma; EMDR Therapy