Click here to download

Bullying and risk factors. A reflection on the cognitive-evolutional treatment
Journal Title: PSICOBIETTIVO 
Author/s: Eleonora Pietropaoli, Emanuela Cioccolanti, Alessandra Salvini 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  18 Pg. 17-34 FullText PDF:  123 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PSOB2015-001002
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


In this article the authors expose a brief review on the different forms and ways in which the bullying phenomenon can arise, focusing particularly on the risk factors such as: the individual, temperamental and personological style, family patterns and the quality of early attachment relationships. After reviewing some preventive programs usually applied in scolastic and community contexts whose main purpose is stopping the bullying phenomenon, the authors introduce some clinical considerations on the therapeutic approches focused instead on improving attachment relationships, mental representation and on reducing symptoms caused by traumatic bullying experiences. The cognitive-evolutionist therapy and EMDR therapy are considered, by scientific literature, the evidence based treatments in psychological therapy of disfuncional internal working models and traumatic experiences. These treatments are promoted in association and continuity with the already implemented school-based bullying interventions.
Keywords: Bullying; Risk Factors; Attachment Style; Cognitive-Evolutional Therapy; Trauma; EMDR Therapy

  1. Arseneault L., Walsh E., Trzesniewski K, Newcombe R., Caspi A., Moffitt T.E. (2006) “Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: a nationally representative cohort study”, Pediatrics, 118, 1: 130-13
  2. Baldry A.C. (1998) “Il bullismo. Un approccio psicosociale”, Carlo Amore, Roma, cit. in Guarino A., Lancellotti R., Serantoni G. (2013) Bullismo. Aspetti giuridici, teorie psicologiche e tecniche di intervento, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  3. Beck J.S. (2011) Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond, 2nd Ed., Guilford, New York
  4. Berdondini L., Fantacci F. (2003) Using teachers reflections and experience to understand bullying at school and how to deal with it, XIIth European Conference on Developmental Psychology
  5. Besag V.E. (1989) Bullies and Victims in school. A Guide to Understanding and Management, England UK, Open University Press
  6. Bonanno R.A., Hymel S. (2013). “Cyber Bullying and Internalizing Difficulties: Above and Beyond the Impact of Traditional Forms of Bullying”, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42 (5): 685-697., DOI: 10.1007/S10964-013-9937-
  7. Boney-McCoy S., Finkelhor D. (2007) “Polyvictimization and trauma in a national longitudinal cohort”, Development and Psychology, 19, 1: 149-166.
  8. , DOI: 10.1017/S0954579407070083BrometE.J.,Havenaar,J.M.(2002)“Mentalhealthconsequencesofdisasters”,inSartoriusN.,GaebelW.(eds.),Psychiatryinsociety,Wiley,NewYork,pp.241-26
  9. Buccoliero E., Maggi M. (2005) Bullismo, bullismi. Le prepotenze in adolescenza dall’analisi dei casi agli strumenti d’intervento, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  10. Cullingford C., Morrison J. (1995) “Bullying as a formative influence: The relationship between the experience of school and criminality”, British Educational Research Journal, 21, 5: 547-560
  11. Demaray C.K., Malecki M.K., De Long L.K. (2006) “Support in the lives of aggressive students, their victims and their peers”, in Jimerson S.R., Furlong M.J. (eds.), Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: From Research to Practice, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ
  12. Farrell D., Keenan P., Knibbs L. (2014) An interpretative phenomenological analysis of Emdr clinicians experience of bullying, Social Sciences Directory.
  13. Fonagy P., Steele M., Steele H., Target M. (1997) Reflective-Functioning Manual Version 4.1 for Application to Adult Attachment Interview. University College, London.
  14. Fonzi A. (a cura di) (1997) Il bullismo in Italia. Il fenomeno delle prepotenze a scuola dal Piemonte alla Sicilia. Ricerche e prospettive di intervento, Giunti, Firenze
  15. Georgiou S.N. (2008) “Parental style and child bullying and victimization experiences at school”, Social Psychological Education, 11, 3: 213-227
  16. Georgiou S.N., Stavrinides P. (2012). “Social-psychological profiles of early adolescents involved in bullying activities”, International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 1: 60-68., DOI: 10.1177/014303430809920
  17. Guarino A., Lancellotti R., Serantoni G. (2011) Bullismo. Aspetti giuridici, teorie psicologiche e tecniche di intervento, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  18. Hazler R.J. (1996) Breaking the cicle of violence: intervention for bullying and victimization, Accelerated Development, Taylor & Francis Group
  19. Hinduja S., Patchin J.W. (2010) “Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide”, Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 3., DOI: 10.1080/13811118.2010.49413
  20. Janson G.R., Hazler R.J. (2004) “Trauma reactions of bystanders and victims to repetitive abuse experiences”, Violence and Victims, 19: 239-255
  21. Jones A.H., Bilge-Johnson S., Rabinovitch A.E., Fischel H. (2013) “Self-Reported Peer Victimization and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: The Mediating Role of Negative Self-Esteem”, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 4: 606-616
  22. Juvonen J., Graham S., Schuster M.A. (2003) “Bullying among young adolescents: the Strong, the weak, and the troubled”, Pediatrics, 112, 6, I: 1231-123., DOI: 10.1542/peds.112.6.123
  23. Kokkinos, Constantinos M. (2013) “Bullying and Victimization in Early Adolescence: Associations with Attachment Style and Perceived Parenting”, Journal of School Violence, 12, 2: 174-192 Knous-Westfall H.M., Ehrensaft M.K., Watson MacDonell K., Cohen P. (2012) “Parental Intimate Partner Violence, Parenting Practices and Adolescent Peer Bullying: A Prospective Study”, Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21: 754-766
  24. Kowalski R.M., Limber S.P. (2013) “Psychological, Physical, and Academic Correlates of Cyberbullying”, Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 1: S13-S20., DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.01
  25. Kumpulainen K., Räsänen E., Henttonen I., Almqvist F., Kresanov K., Linna S. L., Moilanen I., Piha J., Puura K., Tamminen T. (1998) “Bullying and Psychiatric symptoms among elementary school age children”, Child abuse & Neglect, 2, 7: 705-717., DOI: 10.1016/S0145-2134(98)00049-
  26. Kumpulainen K., Räsänen E. (2000) “Children involved in bullying at elementary school age: their psychiatric symptoms and deviance in adolescence – an epidemiological sample” Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 12: 1567-1577., DOI: 10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00210-
  27. Leahy R.L., Holland S.J., McGinn L.K. (2011) Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety Disorders. Treatment Plans and Interventions for Evidence-Based Psychot, Guilford Pubblications, New York
  28. Linehan M.M. (1993) Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder, Guilford Press, New York
  29. Liotti G., Farina B. (2011) Sviluppi traumatici. Eziopatogenesi della dimensione dissociativa, Raffaello Cortina, Milano
  30. Marzocchi C. (2013) Labirinti traumatici: Il filo dell’EMDR. Trattamento EMDR per la rabbia patologica e l’ostilità, State of Mind. www.stateofmind.it/2013/12/ trattamento-emdr-rabbia-patologica/
  31. Menesini E. (1999) “Relazione tra coetanei in età scolare: processi evolutivi e fattori di rischio. Una rassegna di studi”, Psicologia Clinica Dello Sviluppo, 1: 5-36
  32. Menesini E., Gini G. (2000) “Il bullismo come processo di gruppo. Adattamento e validazione del Questionario Ruolo dei Partecipanti alla popolazione italiana”, Età Evolutiva, 66: 18-32
  33. Monniello G., Quadrana L. (2010) “Bullismo, violenza, e gruppo adolescente”, cit. in Guarino A., Lancellotti R., Serantoni G. (2013) Bullismo. Aspetti giuridici, teorie psicologiche e tecniche di intervento, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  34. Newman M.L., Holden G.W., Delville Y. (2005) “Isolation and the stress of being bullied”, Journal of Adolescence, 28, 3: 343-357
  35. Nickerson M. (2013) Congresso nazionale Emdr: Labirinti traumatici: il filo dell’EMDR, 8-10 Novembre 2013, Milano
  36. O’Brien L.S. (1998) Traumatic events and mental health, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom
  37. Olweus D. (1993) Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do, Blackwell, Cambridge, Mass, USA, trad. it. 1996
  38. Olweus D. (2007) Bullismo a scuola. Ragazzi oppressi, ragazzi che opprimono, Giunti, Firenze Oppenheim D., Goldsmith D.F. (2010) La teoria dell‘attaccamento nel lavoro clinico
  39. con i bambini. Colmare il divario tra ricerca e pratica clinica, Borla, Roma
  40. Pisano L., Saturno M.E. (2008) “Le prepotenze che non terminano mai: tipologie, proprietà e aspetti epidemiologici del Cyberbullismo”, Psicologia Contemporanea, 2: 110-121
  41. Pranjic N., Bajraktarevic A. (2010) “Depression and suicide ideation among secondary school adolescents involved in school bullying”, Development Primary Health Care Research & Development, 11, 4: 349-362
  42. Rivers I. (1995) “Mental Health issues among young lesbians and gay men bullied in school”, Health and Social Care in the Community, 3: 380-383., DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.1996.tb00039.
  43. Rizzardi M. (2005) Psicologia Sociale dell’Età Evolutiva, AIPAC Edizioni, Pesaro
  44. Roland E., Idsoe T. (2001) “Aggression and Bullying”, Aggressive Behavior, 27: 446-462
  45. Schneider S.K., O’Donnell L., Stueve A., Coulter R.W.S.
  46. (2012) “Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students”, American Journal of Public Health, 102, 1: 171-177
  47. Shapiro F., Kaslow F., Maxfield L. (2007) Handbook of EMDR and Family Therapy Processes, Wiley, New York
  48. Smith P.K., Myron-Wilson R. (1998) “Parenting and School Bullying”, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3, 3: 405-417., DOI: 10.1177/135910459803300
  49. Smith P.K., Mahdavi J., Carvalho M., Fisher S., Russell S., Tippett N. (2008) “Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils”, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49: 376-385., DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.
  50. vanGeel M., Vedder P., Tanilon J. (2014) “Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis”, JAMA Pediatrics, Advanced Online Publication., DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.414
  51. Walden L.M., Beran T.N. (2010) “Attachment Quality and Bullying Behavior in School-Aged Youth”, Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 1: 5-18
  52. Wigfield A., Lutz S.L., Wagner A.L., Laureal A. (2005) “Early adolescents’ development across the middle school years: Implications for school counselors”, Professional School Counseling, 9: 112-119
  53. Wolke D., Woods S., Stanford K., Schulz H. (2001) “Bullying and victimization of primary school children in England and Germany: prevalence and school factors”, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 4: 676-696
  54. Chan J.H.F (2006) “Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization”, School Psychology International, 27, 3: 352-369
  55. Smokowski P.R., Kopasz K.H. (2005) “Bullying in school: an overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies”, Children and Schools, 27,2: 101-109

Eleonora Pietropaoli, Emanuela Cioccolanti, Alessandra Salvini, Bullying and risk factors. A reflection on the cognitive-evolutional treatment in "PSICOBIETTIVO" 1/2015, pp. 17-34, DOI:10.3280/PSOB2015-001002

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content