Click here to download

Individuals as ecosystems: an essential tension
Journal Title: PARADIGMI 
Author/s: Elena Gagliasso 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  18 Pg. 87-104 FullText PDF:  83 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PARA2015-002007
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Current philosophy of biology shows epistemological essential tensions between individual and its "differing", i.e. the presence of inter-individual differences in one and the same population. From a theoretical and historical perspective, we underline the importance of this differing in population genetics, where, in spite of common mathematical tools, conflicting interpretations persist. This paper aims to point out both the fading of unity and the singleness of the "individual" in the light of symbiontic studies and a more enlarged population thinking. From a philosophical point of view, even if lexically unchanged, the notion of individual acquires new epistemic stratified meanings.
Keywords: Epigenetics, hologenome, individual, population thinking, symbionts.

  1. Bapteste E. and Dupré J. (2013). Towards a processual microbial ontology. Biology and Philosophy, 28, 2: 379-404.
  2. Barsanti G. (2010). Il labirinto della natura. Dalle metafore alle immagini (scale, mappe, alberi) e ritorno. In: Gagliasso E. e Frezza G., a cura di. Metafore del vivente. Milano: Franco Angeli: 157-173.
  3. Berg H. (2004). E. coli in Motion. New York: Springer Verlag.
  4. Buiatti M. (2013). Selezione della variabilità connessa nei sistemi viventi. In: Continenza B., Gagliasso E. e Sterpetti F., a cura di. Confini aperti. Milano: Franco Angeli: 34-48.
  5. Caianiello S. (2009). Adaptive versus Epigenetic Landscape. A Visual Chapter in the History of Evolution and Development. In Brauckmann S., Brandt C. and Thieffry D., eds., Graphing Genes, Cells and Embryos. Berlin: Max Planck Institute Pre-Print Series: 71-82.
  6. Casiraghi M. (2012). Being an Individual (or a species) in a simbiontic world. Paradigmi, 30, 3: 59-70.
  7. Continenza B. (2010). Sintesi in ritardo: la selezione naturale tra sperimentalistigenetisti e naturalisti-sistematici. In: Stanzione M., a cura di. Selezione e selezionismi, Milano: FrancoAngeli: 237-271.
  8. Cleland C. (2013). Pluralism or unity in biology: could microbes hold the secret of life? Biology and Philosophy, 21, 3: 189-204.
  9. Crow J.F. (1994). Sewall Wright 1889-1988. A biographical memoir, National Academy of Sciences, 64: 438-469.
  10. Darwin C. (1859). Origin of species. London: John Murray.
  11. Darwin C. (1868). The variation of animals and plants under domestication. London: John Murray.
  12. Darwin F., ed. (1887). The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. London: John Murray.
  13. De la Cruz F. and Davies J. (2000). Horizontal gene transfer and the origin of species: lessons from bacteria. Trends Microbiology, 8: 128-133.
  14. Dupré J. and O’Malley M.A. (2009). Varieties of living things. Life at the intersection of lineage and metabolism. Philosophy and Theory in Biology, 1: 1-25.
  15. Eckburg P.B., Bik E.M., Bernstein C.N., Purdom E., Dethlefsen L., Sargent M., Gill S.R., Nelson K.E. and Relman D.A. (2005). Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora. Science, 308, 5728: 1635-1638.
  16. Eldredge N. (2002). Hierarchy: Theory and Praxis in Evolutionary Biology. In: Auxier R.E. and Hahn L.E., eds., The Philosophy of Marjorie Grene. Chicago: Open Court Publishing: 315-334.
  17. Ereshefsky M. (2010). Microbiology and the species problem. Biology and Philosophy, 25, 4: 553-568.
  18. Fisher R. (1922). On the dominance ratio. Proceedings for the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 52: 399-437. Fox Keller E. (2000). The Century of the Gene. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
  19. Franklin L.R. (2007). Bacteria, sex, and systematics. Philosophy of Science, 74, 1: 69-95.
  20. Frezza G. e Gagliasso E. (2014). Fare Metafore. Fare scienza. Aisthesis, 7, 2: 25-42
  21. Gagliasso E. (2009). La metafora di individuo in biologia. Paradigmi, 1: 137-146.
  22. Garroni E. (1992). Estetica: uno sguardo-attraverso. Milano: Garzanti.
  23. Gilbert S. and Epel D. (2009). Ecological developmental biology. Sunderland: Sinauer.
  24. Giovannetti E. (2013). Flussi di nutrienti e informazione negli ecosistemi. In: Continenza B., Gagliasso E. e Sterpetti F., a cura di. Confini aperti. Milano: Franco Angeli: 126-139.
  25. Gould S.J. (1997). Full House: the spread of excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York: The River Press.
  26. Gould S.J. (2002). The structure of evolution. Cambridge (MA): Belknap Press.
  27. Guerrero R., Margulis L. and Berlanga M. (2013). Symbiogenesis: the holobiont as a unit of evolution. International Microbiology, 16, 3: 133-143.
  28. Hattori M. and Taylor T.D. (2009). The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology. DNA Research, 16, l: l-12.
  29. Jablonka E. and Lamb M. (2006). Evolution in four dimension. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
  30. Jain R., Rivera M.C. and Lake J.M. (1999). Horizontal gene transfer among genomes: The complexity hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 7: 3801-3806.
  31. Koonin E.V. (2009). Towards a postmodern synthesis of evolutionary biology. Cell Cycle, 5-8, 6: 799-800.
  32. Kuhn T.S. (1959). The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Innovation and Change. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  33. Laland K., Uller T., Feldman M., Sterelny K., Müller G.B., Moczek A., Jablonka E., Odling-Smee J., Wray G.A., Hoekstra H.E., Futuyma D.J., Lenski R.E., Mackay T.F.C., Schluter D. and Strassmann J.E. (2014). Does evolutionary theory need a rethink? Nature, 514, 7521: 161-164.
  34. Lederberg J. (2001). ’Ome sweet ’omics. The Scientist, 15, 7: 1.
  35. Lederberg J. (2006). The microbe’s contribution to biology 50 years after. International Microbiology, 9, 3: 155-156.
  36. Love A.C. and Travisano M. (2013). Microbes modeling ontogeny. Biology and Philosophy, 21, 3: 161-188.
  37. Mayr E. (1942). Systematics and The Origin of Species. New York: Columbia University Press.
  38. Mayr E. and Provine W.B. (1980). The Evolutionary Sinthesis: Perspectives on The Unification of Biology. Cambridge (MA): Cambridge University Press.
  39. Margulis L. and Fester J. (1991). Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
  40. McFall-Ngai M.J. (2002). Unseen Forces: The Influence of Bacteria on Animal Development. Developmental Biology, 242, 1: 1-14. McFall-Ngai M.J. (2008). Are biologists in Future Shock’s? Symbiosis Integrates Biology across Domains. Nature Review of Microbiology, 6, 10: 789-792.
  41. Minelli A. (2007). Forme del divenire. Torino: Einaudi.
  42. Minelli A. and Pradeu T. (2014). Towards a Theory of Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. Odling-Smee J., Laland K. and Feldman M. (2003). Niche Construction: the Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  44. O’Malley M.A., ed. (2013a). Philosophy and Biology, 28, 2. Special issue on “Philosophy and the microbe”.
  45. O’Malley M.A. (2013b). Philosophy and the microbe: a balancing act. Biology and Philosophy, 28, 2: 153-159.
  46. O’Malley M.A. (2013c). When integration fails: Prokaryote phylogeny and the tree of life. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 44, 4: 551-562.
  47. Pievani T. (2012). La teoria dell’evoluzione oggi. Un approccio neo-lakatosiano. Paradigmi, 3: 1-17.
  48. Pigliucci M. and Müller G., eds. (2010). Evolution: the extended Synthesis. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.
  49. Pradeu T. (2012). The Limits of the Self. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  50. Provine B. (1986). Sewall Wright and evolutionary biology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  51. Ramellini P. (2013). Vivere insieme: una sconfinata simbiosi. In: Continenza B., Gagliasso E. e Sterpetti F., a cura di. Confini aperti. Milano: Franco Angeli: 140-156.
  52. Rosenberg E. and Zilber-Rosenberg I. (2011). Symbiosis and development: the hologenome concept. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today, 93, 1: 56-66.
  53. Sagan L. (1967). On the Origin of Mitosing Cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 14, 3: 225-274.
  54. Sapp J. (2003). Genesis. The evolution of biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  55. Schnorr S.L., Candela M., Rampelli S., Centanni M., Consolandi C., Basaglia G., Turroni S., Biagi E., Peano C., Severgnini M., Fiori J., Gotti R., De Bellis G., Luiselli D., Brigidi P., Mabulla A., Marlowe F., Henry A.G. and Crittenden
  56. A.N. (2014). Gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers. Nature Communications, 5: 3654,, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4654
  57. Seed K.D., Lazinski D.L., Calderwood S.B. and Camilli A. (2013). A bacteriophage encodes its own CRISPR/Cas adaptive response to evade host innate immunity. Nature, 494, 7438: 489-491.
  58. Sober E. (1980). Evolution, Population thinking and Essentialism. Philosophy of Science, 47, 3: 350-383.
  59. Stazi M.A. e Toccaceli V. (2014). Genoma e microbioma: ologenoma. È l’epigenetica che li unisce? Epidemiologia & Prevenzione, 38, 1: 67-68.
  60. Van Baalen M. and Huneman P. (2014) issue eds., Biological Theory, 9, 4. Thematic issue on “Organisms as Ecosystems/Ecosystems as organisms”.
  61. Vrba E.S. and Gould, S.J. (1986). The hierarchical expansion of sorting and selection: sorting and selection cannot be equated. Paleobiology, 12, 2: 217-228. Waddington C.H. (1940). Organisers & Genes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  62. Winther R.G., Wade M.G. and Diamond C.C. (2013). Pluralism in evolutionary controversies: styles and averaging strategies in hierarchical selection theories. Philosophy and Biology, 28, 6: 957-979.
  63. Woese C.R. and Fox G. (1977). Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 74, 11: 5088-5090.
  64. Woese C.R. (1987) Bacterial evolution. Microbiological Reviews, 51, 2: 221-271.
  65. Woese C.R. (2004). A new biology for a new century. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 68, 2: 173-186.
  66. Wright S. (1932). The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Genetics, 1: 356-366.
  67. Zilber-Rosenberg I. and Rosenberg E. (2008). Role of microorganisms in the evolution of animals and plants: the hologenome theory of evolution. FEMS Microbiology Review, 32, 5: 723-735.

Elena Gagliasso, in "PARADIGMI" 2/2015, pp. 87-104, DOI:10.3280/PARA2015-002007

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content