Click here to download

Empathy and systemic psychotherapy. Theoretical and clinical implications
Journal Title: PSICOBIETTIVO 
Author/s: Luigi Onnis 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  24 Pg. 60-83 FullText PDF:  141 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PSOB2015-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The Author, after proposing a definition and a brief historical reconstruction of the concept of empathy, takes into account the scientific contribution that draw a great interest about empathy nowadays: those coming from developmental psychology, particularly through the importance of intersubjectivity, and those coming from neurosciences, through the mirror neurons function. It emerges that empathy is a relational construct that involves a shared with an emotional and affective basis (before cognitive) mediated by implicit language, specifically bodily. These relational characteristics of empathy fit perfectly with the systemic-relational psychotherapy which puts the importance of the inter-relationship between its principles and that values its analog languages in their therapeutic work to promote the emotional circulation between therapist and family. A clinical case is described in which the empathic activation among the family members and the therapist is promoted by the use of the analogical method of Family Time Sculptures. In the final part of the paper the risks of an overvaluation of empathy are also discussed, particularly when it is considered as a factor that, by itself, can produce change.
Keywords: Empathy; Intersubjectivity; Mirror Neurons; Systemic Therapy; Implicit Languages; Family Time Sculptures

  1. Baron-Cohen S. (1995) L’autismo e la lettura della mente (trad. it. Astrolabio, Roma, 1997)-702 Bateson G. (1976) Verso un’ecologia della mente, Adelphi, Milano
  2. Bonino S., Lo Coco A., Tani F. (1998) Empatia. I processi di condivisione delle emozioni, Giunti, Firenze
  3. Borke H. (1971) “Interpersonal perception of young children: egocentrism or empathy?”, Developmental Psychology, 5: 263-296
  4. Boszormeny Nagy I., Spark J. (1988) Lealtà invisibili, Astrolabio, Roma
  5. Buber M. (1923-1970) I and you, English translation by W. Kauffman, Touchstone, New York
  6. Ceccarelli M., Pugliatti M., Avallone E., Brescia G., Cimmino M., Valente
  7. M., Farina B. (2013) “L’organizzazione gerarchica dei processi cognitivi: dalle social neurosciences alla pratica clinica”, Psicobiettivo, 2: 107-128
  8. Damasio A. (1995) L’errore di Cartesio, Adelphi, Milano
  9. Damasio A. (2000) Emozioni e coscienza, Adelphi, Milano
  10. Decety J., Jackson P.L. (2004) “The functional architecture of human empathy”, Behavioral Cognitive Neuro Sciences Review, 3: 71-100
  11. Eisenberg N., Strayer J. (1987) Empathy and its development, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York
  12. Elkaim M. (1989) Si tu m’aimes ne m’aimespas, Le Seuil, Paris
  13. Fodor J. (1992) “A theory of the child’s theory of mind”, Cognition, 44: 283-296
  14. Freud S. (1899) L’interpretazione dei sogni, trad. it. Boringhieri, Torino, 1989
  15. Gallese V. (2005) “Embodied simulation: from neurons to phenomenal experience”, Phenomenology and the Cognitive Science, 4: 23-48
  16. Gallese V. (2015) “Sé corporei in relazione: simulazione incarnate come prospettiva in seconda persona sull’intersoggettività”, in Onnis L. (a cura di), Una nuova alleanza tra psicoterapia e neuroscienze: dall’intersoggettività ai neuroni specchio. Dialogo tra D. Stern e V. Gallese, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  17. Gallese V., Fadiga L., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G. (1996) “Action recognition in premotor cortex”, Brain, 119: 593-601
  18. Gallese V., Migone P., Eagle M. (2006) “La simulazione incarnata e i neuroni specchio. Le basi neurofisiologiche dell’intersoggettività ed alcune implicazioni per la psicoanalisi”, Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, 40, 3: 543-580
  19. Hobson R.P. (2002) The cradle of thought, Pan McMillan, London
  20. Hoffman M.L. (1982) “Development of prosocial motivation: empathy and quilt”, in N. Eisemberg (ed.), The development of prosocial behavior, Academic Press, New York
  21. Kandel E.R. (1999) “Biology and the future of Psychoanalysis: a new intellectual frame work for psychiatry”, American J. of Psychiatry, 156: 505-524
  22. Kohut H. (1971) The analysis of the self, International Unv. Press., New York (trad. it. Narcisismo e analisi del Sé, Boringhieri, Torino, 1976)
  23. Le Doux J. (1998) Il cervello emotivo, Baldini, Castoldi, Milano
  24. Lipps T. (1905) “Das wissen von fremdenichen”, Psychologische Untersuchungen, 4: 694-722
  25. Meltzoff A.N., Moore M.K. (1977) “Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates”, Sciences, 198: 75-78
  26. Meltzoff A.N., Moore M.K. (1999) “Persons and representations: why infant imitation is important for theories of human development”, in Nadel J., Butterworth G. (eds.), Imitation in infancy, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge
  27. Onnis L. (2004) Il tempo sospeso, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  28. Onnis L. (2009) “Se la psiche è il riflesso del corpo: una nuova alleanza tra neuroscienze e psicoterapia”, Psicobiettivo, 2: 51-73
  29. Onnis L. (2012) “Le voci interne della famiglia: Miti e fantasmi familiari”, in Onnis L. (a cura di), La terapia familiare in Europa, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  30. Onnis L. (2013) “Le Sculture del Tempo Familiare: un metodo di ‘narrazione analogica’ in psicoterapia sistemica”, Ecologia della mente, 1: 5-27
  31. Onnis L. (2014) “La dimensione dell’intersoggettività nella psicoterapia sistemica relazionale”, Ecologia della mente, 1: 5-15
  32. Onnis L. (a cura di) (2014) Una nuova alleanza tra psicoterapia e neuroscienze: dall’intersoggettività
  33. ai neuroni specchio. Dialogo tra D. Sterne V. Gallese, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  34. Onnis L., Di Gennaro A., Cespa G., Agostini B., Chouhy A., Dentale R.C.,
  35. Quinzi P. (1980) “Le sculture del presente e del futuro: un modello di lavoro terapeutico nelle situazioni psicosomatiche”, Ecologia della mente, 1: 21-48
  36. Onnis L., Di Gennaro A., Cespa G., Agostini B., Chouhy A., Dentale R.C.,
  37. Quinzi P. (1980) “Sculpting present and future: a systemic intervention model applied to psychosomatic families”, Family Process, 33, 3: 341-355
  38. Onnis L., Laurent M., Bendetti P., Cespa G., Di Gennaro A., Cespa G.,
  39. Dentale R.C., Quinzi P. (1980) “Il mito familiare. Concetti teorici e implicazioni terapeutiche”, Ecologia della mente, 2: 95-112
  40. Rizzolatti G., Fadiga L., Gallese V., Fogassi L. (1996) “Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions”, Cognitive Brain Research, 9: 131-141
  41. Rizzolatti G., Sinigaglia C. (2006) So quel che fai: il cervello che agisce e i neuroni specchio, Raffaello Cortina, Milano
  42. Rogers C. (1975) “Empathic. An unappreciated way of being”, The counseling psychologist, 2: 2-10
  43. Sander L.W. (1975) “Infant and caretaking environment. Investigation andconceptualization of adaptive behavior in a system of increasing complexity”, in Anthony E.J. (ed.), Exploration in Child Psychiatry, Plenum, New York
  44. Siegel D.J. (2009) La mente relazionale, Raffaello Cortina, Milano
  45. Stern D.N. (1985) Il mondo interpersonale del bambino, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino
  46. Stern D.N. (2005) Il momento presente, Raffaello Cortina, Milano
  47. Stern D.N. (2006) “L’implicito e l’esplicito in psicoterapia”, in M. Spagnuolo-Lobb (a cura di), Atti del Convegno della Federazione Italiana Associazioni di Psicoterapia (FIAP), FrancoAngeli, Milano
  48. Stern D.N., Hefer L., Haff W., Dore J. (1984) La “sintonizzazione affettiva” (trad. it. in Le interazioni madre-bambino nello sviluppo e nella clinica, Raffaello Cortina, Milano, 1998)
  49. Stern D.N., Sander L.W., Nehum J.P., Harrison A.M., Lyons Ruth K., Morgan A.C., Brushweiler Stern N., Tronick E. (1998) “Non interpretive mechanism in psychoanalytic therapy: the ‘something more’, than interpretation”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 79: 903-918 (trad. it. in L. Onnis (a cura di), Una nuova alleanza tra psicoterapia e neuroscienze. Dialogo tra D. Stern e V. Gallese, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  50. Strayer J. (1987) “Affective and cognitive perspective on empathy”, in Eisemberg F., Strayer (eds.), Empathy and its development, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York
  51. Titchener E. (1909) Experimental psychology of the thought processes, McMillan, New York
  52. Trevarthen C. (1980) “The foundation of intersubjectivity. Development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants”, in Olson D. (ed.), The social foundation of Language and thought, Norton, New York
  53. Trevarthen C. (1993) “Il sé generale dell’intersoggettività, la psicologia della comunicazione infantile”, in Neisser U. (ed.), La percezione di Sé: le fonti ecologiche interpersonali della conoscenza di sé, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino, 1999
  54. Tronick E.Z., Als H., Brazelton T.B. (1977) “The infant capacity to regulate mutually in face to face interaction”, Journal of Communication, 27: 74, 80

Luigi Onnis, Empathy and systemic psychotherapy. Theoretical and clinical implications in "PSICOBIETTIVO" 2/2015, pp. 60-83, DOI:10.3280/PSOB2015-002004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content