The new order created by the great powers after the Congress of Vienna was characterized by a restoration of only few dynasties, especially the Bourbons in France, Spain and Naples. For a huge number of minor States there was no restoration of their former rulers, but in 1814 their loss of sovereignty due to the Napoleonic transformation of Europe was confirmed: a veritable territorial revolution which was accompanied by guarantees for the private property created out of the secularization and selling of nationalized church estate. With the conservative turning point of 1819-20, the term «restoration» changed its meaning. The new European «concert» signified a major security in avoiding international conflicts at the level of the great powers, but at the same time it was a source of legitimation for political and military interventions in the internal affairs of minor States.
Keywords: Restoration, Congress of Vienna, Territorial revolution, Repression, Collective security