Following the academic debate on trade unions responses to non-standard forms of employment, the article analyses unions strategies addressing the issue of rights and working conditions of "atypical" workers in the Italian hospitals sector. Drawing upon a qualitative approach, it examines the instruments used: from collective bargaining to dialogue with political institutions and mobilisation. The analysis shows a development towards inclusive strategies, based on a progressive adjustment and enlargement of the existing practices of representation, without substantial changes in the way of operating. Such strategies have obtained important outcomes; however they are not sufficient. Situations of problematic working conditions and unequal treatment still exist. Reducing them requires more innovative changes in unions actions, together with much more resources and dedication by counterparts and political institutions.
Keywords: Atypical employment, working conditions, trade unions, industrial relations