Fifty years after the death of E. Bernhard (1896-1965) and, in the hometown of E. Weiss (1889-1970), we wish to remember the two Jewish pioneers of depth psychology in Italy, honouring their friendship. In Rome, between 1936 and 1939, they embarked on an enterprise entailing the first official steps of the new discipline, and exerting a significant influence on the Italian humanistic culture that was to be developed after the Fascim. The article illustrates similarities, divergences and some theoretical aspects of their unconventional psychological approach. References to their personal relationship with Freud and Jung are also mentioned. It also includes some excerpts from two of the hitherto 14 unpublished letters sent by Bernhard to Weiss between 1945 and 1953 contained in Edoardo Weiss Papers 1919-1970, preserved in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress in Washington DC.
Keywords: E. Bernhard, E. Weiss, history of psychoanalysis, history of analytical psychology, Italy, culture, collaboration, ebraism, nazifascism