Although within the limits set by the essay, the author analyzes the situation of children in China, considering the social, demographic, and cultural implications of the ‘one child’ policy introduced from 1979 to 2015. Today, the situation has changed, but the decision to have two children is still not easy. There are many reasons for this, such as the costs of education and parents’ expectations for children’s success in school and social pressure. Special attention is given to the themes of: early childhood education and care (0-3 years old), the situation of teenagers under pressure because of the highly competitive educational system and the increasing phenomenon of ‘left-behind’ children, children who are left to stay with relatives, as parents move to more industrialized cities to look for work.
Keywords: Childhood in China; one child policy; left-behind children; ECEC in China; investment on the single child; competitive educational system.