Environmental sociology was born forty years ago as a result of emergent ecological concerns. After the New Ecological Paradigm and the first eco-Marxist analyses the interest prevailed in the "social construction of environmental problems". Subsequently the perspective of practices has gained salience. "New materialism" has seen the discipline active especially in regard to new mobilizations. In the meantime the framework has changed, with the rise of neoliberalism and global environmental change. A reading of Sociologia Urbana e Rurale confirms substantive interests and evolutionary lines of the discipline. Today one has to tackle the ambiguous challenge of the Anthropocene and the resurgence in new forms of old cleavages.
Keywords: New Ecological Paradigm, eco-Marxism, co-production, neoliberalism, Anthropocene, new materialism