Click here to download

Care and Control at the Border: Documents and Practices of Medical Knowledge within the Hotspots
Journal Title: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Author/s: Jacopo Anderlini 
Year:  2018 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  20 Pg. 61-80 FullText PDF:  208 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2018-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Starting from its definition in the 2015 European Agenda on Migration, the "hotspot approach" has been adopted in different border zones within the Euro-pean boundaries. This specific border dispositive is framed within the discourses on security and humanitarianism, depicting what William Walters (2011) defines as the "humanitarian border". Focusing on the role of the medical expertise, the article examines procedures and practices at work inside the hotspot. The functions of identification, classification and selection characterize this border technology as a filter to decelerate, block, reroute mobility trajectories. Based on a research fieldwork on the hotspot of Pozzallo, Italy, the contribution examines - through ethnographical fieldwork, in-depth interviews and analysis of bureaucratic artefacts - the activities of medical staff, their experiences and inter-actions within this complex border assemblage. The function of the medical exper-tise is thus unveiled as a biopolitical tool to bodies’ governance, in its double di-mension of care and control. Concurrently, the "doctor-patient" relationship could give space to enact counter tactics by the subjects captured in this border technol-ogy.
Keywords: Hotspot; humanitarian border; ethnography; border regime; humanitari-anism.

  1. Aradau C. (2004). The Perverse Politics of Four-Letter Words: Risk and Pity in the Securitisation of Human Trafficking. Millennium, 33, 2: 251-77;, 10.1177/03058298040330020101DOI: 10.1177/03058298040330020101
  2. Bialasiewicz L. (2011). Borders, above all?. Political Geography, 30, 6: 299-300.
  3. Bröckling U., Krasmann S. e Lemke T. (2011). Governmentality: Current issues and future challenges. London-New York: Routledge.
  4. Calandrino T., Bellezza S., Küffner C., Borghi L., Biondo A. e Gleitze J. - Borderline Europe - a cura di (2017). Criminalization of Flight and Escape Aid. Hamburg: Tredition.
  5. European Commission (2015a). Agenda europea sulla migrazione. Comunicazione della commissione al parlamento europeo, al consiglio, al comitato economico e sociale europeo e al comitato delle regioni. COM/2015/0240 final.
  6. European Commission (2015b). «Explanatory note on the “Hotspot” approach».
  7. European Commission (2015c). Comunicazione della Commissione al Parlamento europeo, al Consiglio europeo e al Consiglio. Gestire la crisi dei rifugiati: misure operative, finanziarie e giuridiche immediate nel quadro dell’agenda europea sulla migrazione. COM/2015/0490 final.
  8. Fassin D. (2012). Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present Times. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  9. Fassin D. (2007). Humanitarianism: A Nongovernmental Government. In: Fiher M., cit.: 149-160.
  10. Fassin D. (2005). Compassion and Repression: The Moral Economy of Immigration Policies in France. Cultural Anthropology, 20, 3: 362-387;
  11. Fassin D. (2001). Quand le corps fait loi. La raison humanitaire dans les procédures de régularisation des étrangers. Sciences sociales et santé, 19, 4: 5-34;
  12. Fassin D. e Estelle d’Halluin (2005). The Truth from the Body: Medical Certificates as Ultimate Evidence for Asylum Seekers. American Anthropologist, 107, 4: 597-608;
  13. Feldman G. (2011). If Ethnography Is More than Participant-Observation, Then Relations Are More than Connections: The Case for Nonlocal Ethnography in a World of Apparatuses. Anthropological Theory, 11, 4: 375-395;, 10.1177/1463499611429904DOI: 10.1177/1463499611429904
  14. Fiher M. (2007). Nongovernmental Politics. New York: Zone Books.
  15. Fischer N. (2013). Bodies at the border: the medical protection of immigrants in a French immigration detention centre. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36, 7: 1162-1179;, 10.1080/01419870.2013.783708DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2013.783708
  16. Foucault M. (1975) 2011. Sorvegliare e punire: nascita della prigione. Torino: Einaudi.
  17. Frontex Risk Analysis Network (2011a). «Fran Quarterly 1/2011». 1. Warsaw.
  18. Frontex Risk Analysis Network (2011b). «Fran Quarterly 3/2011». 3. Warsaw.
  19. Frontex Risk Analysis Network (2010a). «Fran Quarterly 2/2010». 2. Warsaw.
  20. Frontex Risk Analysis Network (2010b). «Fran Quarterly 4/2010». 4. Warsaw.
  21. Giudici D. (2014). La vita materiale dei mondi burocratici: certificati medici, procedure di asilo e ricerca etnografica. MondiMigranti, 3: 109-123;, 10.3280/MM2014-003007DOI: 10.3280/MM2014-003007
  22. Kallius A., Monterescu D. e Rajaram P.K. (2016). Immobilizing Mobility: Border Ethnography, Illiberal Democracy, and the Politics of the “Refugee Crisis” in Hungary. American Ethnologist, 43, 1: 25-37;
  23. Lessler J., Andrew S. Azman, Heather S. McKay and Sean M. Moore. (2017). What is a Hotspot Anyway?. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 96, 6: 1270-1273;
  24. Maillet P., Alison Mountz, e Keegan W. (2016). Researching migration and enforcement in obscured places: practical, ethical and methodological challenges to fieldwork. Social & Cultural Geography, 0, 0: 1-24;, 10.1080/14649365.2016.1197963DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2016.1197963
  25. Malkki L.H. (1996). Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization. Cultural Anthropology, 11, 3: 377-404.
  26. Ministero dell’Interno (2016). «Procedure Operative Standard (Sop) applicabili agli hotspots italiani; -- http://www.libertaciviliimmigrazione.dlci.interno.gov.it/sites/default/files/allegati/hotspots_sops_-_versione_italiana.pdf.
  27. Mutua M.W. (2001). Savages, Victims, and Saviors: The Metaphor of Human Rights. Ssrn Scholarly Paper ID 1525547. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.
  28. Neocleous M. e Kastrinou M. (2016). The eu hotspot: Police war against the migrant. Radical Philosophy 200 (novembre).
  29. Scott J.C. (1999). Seeing like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
  30. Seo B.K. (2017). The Work of Inscription: Antenatal Care, Birth Documents, and Shan Migrant Women in Chiang Mai. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 31, 4: 481-498;
  31. Ticktin M. (2011). Casualties of care: immigration and the politics of humanitarianism in France. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  32. Ticktin M. (2005). Policing and Humanitarianism in France: Immigration and the Turn to Law as State of Exception. Interventions, 7, 3: 346-368;, 10.1080/13698010500268148DOI: 10.1080/13698010500268148
  33. Walters W. (2011). Foucault and frontiers: notes on the birth of the humanitarian border. In: Bröckling U., Krasmann S. e Lemke T., cit.: 138-164.
  34. Walters W. (2006). Border/Control. European Journal of Social Theory, 9, 2: 187- 203;, 10.1177/1368431006063332DOI: 10.1177/1368431006063332
  35. Williams J.M. (2015). From humanitarian exceptionalism to contingent care: Care and enforcement at the humanitarian border. Political Geography, 47, (luglio): 11-20;
  36. Zaiotti R. (2011). Cultures of border control: Schengen and the evolution of European frontiers. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press.

Jacopo Anderlini, Care and Control at the Border: Documents and Practices of Medical Knowledge within the Hotspots in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 2/2018, pp. 61-80, DOI:10.3280/MM2018-002004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content