The phenomenon of armed rebellion in southern Italy known as brigantaggio, erupted immediately after the unification of the penin-sula, has strongly marked its history becoming object of a huge his-toriographical and political debate. Currently, the two topics Risor-gimento and brigantaggio are back in vogue and historical studies, enriched by dialogue with other disciplines, are ready to undertake paths still unexplored. One of those is the case study of military courts entrusted by the Pica Law in instituting processes against brigands and their accomplices. The author of the essay dealt with the analysis of trial papers drafted by military courts and the Court of Assize of Bari between 1863-1865, reconstructing the most repre-sentative cases and collecting quantitative data meant to delineate a social profile of suspects. The research has therefore led to assess the work of military courts and verify the efficacy of the government strategy aimed to pacify southern Italy and legitimize the new-born Italian State.
Keywords: Brigantaggio; Military Tribunal; Bari.