As this article highlights, the clinical-psychological studies on the Mafia, carried out by the team of researchers from the University of Palermo coordinated by prof. Lo Verso, started in 1994 with the study of the Vitale case (Lo Verso, 1995) and began from the vision of the Mafia phenomenon as the subject of studies and researches with both ethic and scientific motivations, all carried out with an inter-disciplinary perspective that connect different points of view: legal and psychodynamic-group analytic. The article says: "The group analytic model (Lo Verso, 1989, 1994; Giannone, Lo Verso, 1996; Fiore, 1997; Lo Verso, Di Blasi, 2012) represents the key to the interpretation of the mental processes characterising the mafia psyche. That’s because the psychodinamic analyses found out that the Mafia is an ethnic system, a way to be a family, an organization, an identity integrated in the local area, whose psychic-anthropological origin mixes cultural, community, family, individual factors. The mafia psychism turns out to be the organizing system of relations between the individual and the reality, that are dogmatic and fundamentalist" (Lo Verso, 1998), which means it is structured on strict emotional basis; even it can be considered as "unconscious pattern that is involved in several aspects of the daily life". In the study of psychological details that characterize the mafia psychism the fundamentalism has a central role. The psychic birth is a relational process of identification of the newborn with his family, the anthropological and biological reality where he grows up. Both the outside world and the inner word contribute to organize the unconscious along with the experience (Lo Verso, Di Blasi, 2012). The research and the clinic support the hypothesis that the mafia family is responsible for the saturation function of the evolutionary process of the biologi cal family and for the conditioning of evolution process due to its psychic fundamentalism that doesn’t recognize and encourage any type of subjectivity and independence thought: It’s like the individual psyche was colonized by the familiar psyche, that is transgenerational and exended to include the Mafia family in which the individual identifies himself at all. Giovanni Falcone gave an important contribute to psychological-clinical studies of the Mafia. He came up with a very important research method focused on the value of relation and fed by the need of truly understand the phenomenon in order to battle it. This method is based on the dialogue among people considered in their own peculiarity and complexity, with a sort of clinical attitude. The psychology of ex-mafia criminal becominig collaborators with justice confirms what was hypothesized on the Mafia family and identity: "The main data emerging from the deposition of the collaborators is the distinction they make between the ideal aspects of Cosa Nostra, that are the foundations of theis sense of belonging to the organization, and the real aspects, as the distortion of ‘the code of honor’, in which they no loger identifie themselves". In the 90’s and 2000’s the studies expanded to groups of judges, to the analysis of psychiatric evaluations and depositions, to the Health Service work conducted expecially with children of mafia bosses, giving the contribute to the study of the mafia psyche as the central aim of the research and clinical fields and enphasizing the mafia phenomenon as real psychic organizer. Specific setting and psychoterapic tecniques will born in order to answer to question: Whats does it means to the therapist helping a patient to reveal his own story characterized by murders, betrayals, infant deaths? How does it feel being watched? (Giunta, Lo Verso, 2011). In Mafia in Psychotherapy (Lo Verso, 2013) the real clinical cases demonstrate that the Mafia is a psychopathology because it is responsible for the depersonalisation, anxiety, paranoia, self-esteem breakups, impossibiliy of socio-economic and politic development.
Keywords: Mafia, fundamentalism, mafia psychism.