Click here to download

Suspended in time. Inactivity and perceived malaise in NEET young adults
Journal Title: PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE 
Author/s: Anna Parola, Lucia Donsì 
Year:  2018 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  30 Pg. 44-73 FullText PDF:  446 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PDS2018-003003
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Latest economic crisis has severely impacted Italian young adults making harder their transition to work. For this reason, NEET phenomenon has so increased, acronym for youth aged 15-34 years not engaged in employment, education or training. In our opinion the phe-nomenon should be considered taking into account of specific socio-cultural context because it could affect the adaptive process, nature and modalities of transitions, with different spillover effects on psychological wellness. Starting from explorative purposes, this research aims to highlight NEET condition in Campania, region of Italy most closely associated with it (37.7%), focusing on young adults aged 20-34 more specifically. Furthermore, purpose of paper is to detect if and how em-ployment status and ways of experiencing daily time and satisfaction of life and health of young are associated. Using data collected by Multipurpose Investigation Istat "Aspects of daily life" (Istat, 2016), we focused on ways of experiencing time, dimension of future, perception and satis-faction of health of young adult NEET, by comparing these aspects with the ways experienced from students and workers of the same age. Results show three different profiles in relation to employment status. In particular, NEET’s profile is characterized by inactivity, malaise, dissatisfaction and uncertain dimension of future.
Keywords: NEET, young adults, temporal perspective, perceived health, multiple corre-spondence analysis.

  1. Achenbach T.M. (1997). Manual for the young adult self-report and young adult behavior checklist. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
  2. Agnoli M.S. (2015). Generazioni sospese. Percorsi di ricerca sui giovani NEET [Interrupted generations. Research into young NEETs]. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  3. Albertini M. and Kohli M. (2013). The generational contract in the family: An analysis of transfer regimes in Europe. European Sociological Review, 29 (4): 828-840.
  4. Aleni Sestito L., Sica L.S., Ragozini G., Porfeli E., Weisblat G. and Di Palma T. (2015). Vocational and overall identity: A person-centered approach in Italian university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91: 157-169.
  5. Arnett J.J., Žukauskienė R. and Sugimura K. (2014). The new life stage of emerging adulthood at ages 18-29 years: implications for mental health. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1 (7): 569-576., 10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00080-7DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00080-7
  6. Atkinson A.B. and Hills J., editors (1997). Exclusion, employment and opportunity. London: Center for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  7. Baggio S., Iglesias K., Deline S., Studer J., Henchoz Y., Mohler-Kuo M. and Gmel G. (2015). Not in Education, Employment, or Training status among young Swiss men. Longitudinal associations with mental health and substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56 (2): 238-243.
  8. Baltes P.B., Reese H.W. and Lipsitt L.P. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual review of psychology, 31 (1): 65-110.
  9. Benach J., Vives A., Amable M., Vanroelen C., Tarafa G. and Muntaner C. (2014). Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual review of public health, 35: 229-253.
  10. Benzécri J.P. (1973). L’Analyse des Données [Analysis of data]. Paris: Dunod.
  11. Berton F., Richiardi M. e Sacchi S. (2009). Flex-insecurity. Perché in Italia la flessibilità diventa precarietà [Why flexibility becames insecurity in Italy]. Bologna: il Mulino.
  12. Blustein D.L. (2011). A relational theory of working. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79 (1): 1-17.
  13. Boeri T. e Galasso V. (2007). Contro i giovani: come l’Italia sta tradendo le nuove generazioni [Against the young: how Italy has been betraying the new generations]. Milano: Mondadori.
  14. Brydsten A., Hammarström A., Strandh M. and Johansson K. (2015). Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort. The European Journal of Public Health, 25 (5): 796-800.
  15. Bynner J. (2012). Policy reflections guided by longitudinal study, youth training, social exclusion, and more recently NEET. British Journal of Educational Studies, 60 (1): 39-52., 10.1080/00071005.2011.650943DOI: 10.1080/00071005.2011.650943
  16. Bynner J. and Parsons S. (2002). Social Exclusion and the Transition from School to Work: The Case of Young People Not in Education, Employment, Or Training (NEET). Journal of vocational behavior, 60 (2): 289-309.
  17. Callea A. (2010). Validazione del questionario Precarietà di vita [Validation of the Precariousness of Life Inventory]. Giornale di Psicologia, 4 (3): 219-227.
  18. Callea A., Urbini F. e Lo Presti A. (2016). Valutare la salute dei lavoratori a tempo determinato: validazione del Precariousness of Life Inventory (PLI-9) – versione breve [Evaluating the Health of Temporary Workers: Validation of the Precariousness of Life Inventory (PLI-9) – Short Form]. Psicologia della Salute, 1: 133-149., 10.3280/PDS2016-001011DOI: 10.3280/PDS2016-001011
  19. Carcillo S., Fernández R., Königs S. and Minea A. (2015). NEET Youth in the Aftermath of the Crisis: Challenges and Policies. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 164, Paris: OECD Publishing.
  20. Catalano R. (1991). The health effects of economic insecurity. American Journal of Public Health, 81 (9): 1148-1152., 10.2105/AJPH.81.9.1148DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.81.9.1148
  21. Cortini M., Tanucci G. and Morin E. (2011). Boundaryless Careers: an interdisciplinary approach. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
  22. Costa P.S., Santos N.C., Cunha P., Cotter J. and Sousa N. (2013). The use of multiple correspondence analysis to explore associations between categories of qualitative variables in healthy ageing. Journal of Aging Research., 10.1155/2013/302163DOI: 10.1155/2013/302163
  23. Crocetti E. e Palmonari A. (2011). Le fasi adolescenziali e giovanili nello sviluppo individuale [Adolescent and youth phases in the individual development]. In: Palmonari A., a cura di, Psicologia dell’adolescenza [Psychology of Adolescence] (Terza Edizione). Bologna: il Mulino, pp. 53-66.
  24. Crocetti E., Rabaglietti E. and Sica L.S. (2012). Personal identity in Italy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 138: 87-102.
  25. Danaei G., Vander Hoorn S., Lopez A.D., Murray C.J., Ezzati M. and Comparative Risk Assessment collaborating group Cancers (2005). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors. The Lancet, 366 (9499): 1784-1793., 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67725-2DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67725-2
  26. De Cuyper N., de Jong J., De Witte H., Isaksson K., Rigotti T. and Schalk R. (2008). Literature review of theory and research on the psychological impact of temporary employment: towards a conceptual model. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10 (1): 25-51.
  27. Di Fabio A. and Kenny M.E. (2011). Promoting emotional intelligence and career decision making among Italian high school students. Journal of Career Assessment, 19 (1): 21-34., 10.1177/1069072710382530DOI: 10.1177/1069072710382530
  28. Di Fabio A. and Kenny M.E. (2012). Emotional intelligence and perceived social support among Italian high school students. Journal of Career Development, 39 (5): 461-475., 10.1177/0894845311421005DOI: 10.1177/0894845311421005
  29. Di Fabio A. and Kenny M.E. (2015). The contributions of emotional intelligence and social support for adaptive career progress among Italian youth. Journal of Career Development, 42 (1): 48-59., 10.1177/0894845314533420DOI: 10.1177/0894845314533420
  30. Di Fabio A. and Kenny M.E. (2016). From decent work to decent lives: positive self and relational management (PS&RM) in the twenty-first century. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 361.
  31. Duarte M.E. (2004). O indivíduo e a organização: Perspectivas de desenvolvimento [The individual and the organization: Perspectives of development]. Psychologica (Extra-Série): 549-557.
  32. Elder S. (2015). What does NEETs mean and why is the concept so easily misinterpreted? Geneva: ILO Publishing.
  33. Eurofound (2012). NEETs – Young people not in employment, education or training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe. Publications Office of the European Union.
  34. Eurofound (2016). Exploring the diversity of NEETs. Publications Office of the European Union.
  35. Eurostat (2017). Statistics on young people neither in employment nor in education or training. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Statistics_on_young_people_neither_in_employment_nor_in_education_or_training.
  36. Fergusson D.M., Horwood L.J. and Woodward L.J. (2001). Unemployment and psychosocial adjustment in young adults: causation or selection? Social science and medicine, 53 (3): 305-320., 10.1177/0004867414525840DOI: 10.1177/0004867414525840
  37. Fryer D. and Payne R. (1986). Being unemployed: A review of the literature on the psychological experience of unemployment. In: Cooper C.L. and. Robertson I.T, editors, International review of industrial and organizational psychology. Chichester, UK: Wiley, pp. 235-278.
  38. Goodwin J. and O’Connor H. (2005) Exploring complex transitions: looking back at the ‘golden age’ of youth transitions. Sociology, 39 (2): 201-220., 10.1177/0038038505050535DOI: 10.1177/0038038505050535
  39. Greenacre M.J. (2007). Correspondence Analysis in Practice (2nd ed.). London: Chapman and Hall/CRC.
  40. Guichard J. (2004). Se faire soi [Self-construction]. L’orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 33 (4): 499-533.
  41. Guichard J. (2005). Life-long self-construction. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 5 (2): 111-124.
  42. Guichard J. (2013, November). Career guidance, education, and dialogues for a fair and sustainable human development. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the UNESCO chair of Lifelong Guidance and Counselling. Poland: University of Wroclaw.
  43. Hage S.M., Romano J.L., Conyne R.K., Kenny M., Matthews C., Schwartz J.P. and Waldo M. (2007). Best practice guidelines on prevention practice, research, training, and social advocacy for psychologists. The Counseling Psychologist, 35 (4): 493-566., 10.1177/0011000006291411DOI: 10.1177/0011000006291411
  44. Hagquist C. and Starrin B. (1996). Youth unemployment and mental health–gender differences and economic stress. International Journal of Social Welfare, 5 (4): 215-228.
  45. Hair J.F., Black W.C., Babin B.J., Anderson R.E. and Tatham R.L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados [Multivariate data analysis]. Porto Alegre, RS: Bookman Editora.
  46. Hammarström A. (1994). Health consequences of youth unemployment – review from a gender perspective. Social Science and Medicine, 38: 699-709., 10.1016/S0033-3506(94)80097-9DOI: 10.1016/S0033-3506(94)80097-9
  47. Hammarström A. and Janlert U. (2002). Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems: results from a longitudinal study of school leavers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56 (8): 624-630.
  48. Hammer T. (1992). Unemployment and use of drug and alcohol among young people: A longitudinal study in the general population. British Journal of Addiction, 87: 1571-1581.
  49. Henderson J.L., Hawke L.D., Chaim G. and Network N.Y.S.P. (2017). Not in employment, education or training: Mental health, substance use, and disengagement in a multi-sectoral sample of service-seeking Canadian youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 75: 138-145.
  50. Iezzi M. e Mastrobuoni T. (2010). Gioventù sprecata [Wasted youth]. Milano: Laterza.
  51. ILO (2016). Non-standard employment around the world: Understanding challenges, shaping prospects. Geneva: International Labour Office.
  52. Istance D., Rees G. and Williamson H. (1994). Young people not in education, training or employment in South Glamorgan. Cardiff: South Glamorgan Training and Enterprise Council.
  53. Istat (2012). Annuario statistico Italiano: Lavoro [Italian statistical yearbook: labour]. Retrieved from: http://www.west-info.eu/files/Annuario-statistico-ISTAT.pdf
  54. Istat (2016). Aspetti della vita quotidiana 2016. Aspetti metodologici della ricerca [Aspects of daily life 2016. Survey Methodology]. Retrieved from: http://www.istat.it/it/archivio/129956
  55. Istat (2017). Rilevazione sulle forze di lavoro. [Labour Force Survey] Retrieved from: http://dati.istat.it/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=DCCV_NEET1&Lang=#.
  56. Janlert U. and Hammarström A. (1992). Alcohol consumption among unemployed youths. Results from a prospective study. British Journal of Addiction, 87: 703-714.
  57. Kasl S.V., Rodriguez E. and Lasch K.E. (1998). The impact of unemployment on health and well-being. In: Dohrenwend B.P, editor, Adversity, stress, and psychopathology. Oxford, England: University Press, pp. 111-131.
  58. Kroger J. (2007). Identity development: Adolescence through adulthood. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  59. Leccardi C. (2005). Facing uncertainty: temporality and biographies in the new century. Young, 13 (2): 123-146., 10.1177/1103308805051317DOI: 10.1177/1103308805051317
  60. Leccardi C. (2006). Redefining the future: Youthful biographical constructions in the 21st century. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 113: 37-48.
  61. Lerner R.M. (1982). Children and adolescents as producers of their own development. Developmental Review, 2 (4): 342-370., 10.1016/0273-2297(82)90018-1DOI: 10.1016/0273-2297(82)90018-1
  62. Livi Bacci M. (2008). Avanti giovani, alla riscossa! [Go ahead young people, to the rescue!]. Bologna: il Mulino.
  63. Lucas R.E., Clark A.E., Georgellis Y. and Diener E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 15 (1): 8-13.
  64. Lynge E. (1997). Unemployment and cancer: a literature review. In: Kogevinas M., Pearce N., Susser M. and Boffetta P., editors, Social inequalities and cancer IARC Scientific Publication, No. 138. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 177-206.
  65. McKee-Ryan F., Song Z., Wanberg C.R. and Kinicki A.J. (2005). Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: a meta-analytic study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (1): 53-76., 10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.53DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.53
  66. Morris J.K., Cook D.G. and Shaper A.G. (1994). Loss of employment and mortality. British Medical Journal, 308 (6937): 1135-1139.
  67. Mota J.C., Vasconcelos A.G. and Assis, S.G. (2008). Correspondence analysis: A method for classifying similar patterns of violence against women. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 24: 1397-1406., 10.1590/S0102-311X2008000600020DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008000600020
  68. Murphy G.C. and Athanasou J.A. (1999). The effect of unemployment on mental health. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72: 83-99.
, 10.1348/096317999166518DOI: 10.1348/096317999166518
  69. Nam J.R. and Kim S.U. (2013). A study on youth NEET and labor market outcomes in Korea. Sejong: Korea Labor Institute.
  70. Nardi B., Arimatea E., Giunto P., Lucarelli C., Nocella S. and Bellantuono C. (2013). Not Employed in Education or Training (NEET) adolescents with unlawful behaviour: an observational study. Journal of Psychopathology, 19: 42-48.
  71. Noh H. and Lee B. J. (2017). Risk factors of NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training) in South Korea: an empirical study using panel data. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, 27 (1): 28-38., 10.1080/02185385.2017.1289860DOI: 10.1080/02185385.2017.1289860
  72. Parkin D.M., Boyd L. and Walker L.C. (2011). The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. British Journal of Cancer, 105 (52): 577-581.
  73. Parrello S., Iorio I. e Riccardo C. (2017). Giovani per i giovani: sperimentazioni nella periferia est di Napoli [Young for young: experimentations in the east periphery of Naples]. In: Alfieri S. e Sironi E., a cura di, Una generazione in panchina [A generation on the sidelines], Quaderni rapporto giovani, n. 6. Milano: Vita e Pensiero, pp. 609-626.
  74. Paul K.I. and Moser K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational behavior, 74 (3): 264-282.
  75. Pharr S. J. and Putnam R.D., editors (2000). Disaffected Democracies: What Is Troubling the What’s Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princenton, NJ: Princenton University Press.
  76. Pirani E. and Salvini S. (2015). Is temporary employment damaging to health? A longitudinal study on Italian workers. Social Science & Medicine, 124: 121-131.
  77. Piumatti G. (2016). Capitale sociale e benessere percepito nella popolazione anziana in Italia [Social capital and self-perceived well-being in the Italian elderly population]. Psicologia della Salute, 3: 47-63., 10.3280/PDS2016-003003DOI: 10.3280/PDS2016-003003
  78. Piumatti G., Pipitone L., Di Vita A.M., Latina D. and Rabaglietti E. (2014). Transition to adulthood across Italy: A comparison between Northern and Southern Italian young adults. Journal of Adult Development, 21 (1): 1-12.
  79. Porfeli E.J., Lee B., Vondracek F.W. and Weigold I.K. (2011). A multi-dimensional measure of vocational identity status. Journal of Adolescence, 34 (5): 853-871.
  80. Quinlan M. (2015). The effects of non-standard forms of employment on worker health and safety. Geneva: ILO.
  81. Quintini G. and Martin S. (2006). Starting well or losing their way? The position of youth in the labour market in Oecd countries. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 39. Paris: OECD Publishing., 10.1787/351848125721DOI: 10.1787/351848125721
  82. Ranci C., editor (2010). Social vulnerability in Europe: the new configuration of social risks. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  83. Reifman A., Arnett J.J. and Colwell M.J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: Theory, assessment and application. Journal of Youth Development, 2 (1): 37-48.
  84. Robins L. and Rutter M. (1990). Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  85. Sarchielli G. (2011). L’incontro con il lavoro [Meeting the job]. In: Palmonari A., a cura di, Psicologia dell’adolescenza [Psychology of Adolescence] (Terza Edizione). Bologna: il Mulino, pp. 295-314.
  86. Savickas M.L. (2005). Career construction theory and practice. In: Lent R.W. and Brown S.D., editors, Career development and counselling: Putting theory and research into work (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 42-70.
  87. Savickas M.L. (2012). Life design: A paradigm for career intervention in the 21st century. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90 (1): 13-19.
  88. Scabini E. e Rossi G., a cura di (2006). Le parole della famiglia [The words of the family] (Vol. 21). Milano: Vita e Pensiero.
  89. Schwartz S.J., Luyckx K. and Vignoles V.L., editors (2011). Handbook of identity theory and research. New York: Springer.
  90. Selenko E., Mäkikangas A. and Stride C.B. (2017). Does job insecurity threaten who you are? Introducing a social identity perspective to explain well-being and performance consequences of job insecurity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38 (6): 856-875.
  91. Sheldon K.M. and Elliot A.J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: the self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76 (3): 482-497., 10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.482DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.482
  92. Sica S.L. e Aleni Sestito L. (2016). Tra distress e agentività: il difficile percorso di consolidamento identitario nelle narrazioni di giovani adulti inoccupati o precari [Between distress and agency: The difficult path of identity consolidation in narratives of young adults unemployed or precarious]. Psicologia della Salute, 1: 111-131., 10.3280/PDS2016-001010DOI: 10.3280/PDS2016-001010
  93. Skorikov V.B. and Vondracek F.W. (2011). Occupational identity. In: Schwartz S.J., Luyckx K. and. Vignoles V.L., editors, Handbook of identity theory and research. New York: Springer, pp. 693-714.
  94. Sommantico M., De Rosa B. and Parrello S. (2017). Counselling University Students: A Psychoanalytic Approach of the Single Case Report. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 5 (1)., 10.6092/2282-1619/2017.5.1354DOI: 10.6092/2282-1619/2017.5.1354
  95. Stewart C.H., Berry P., Przulj D. and Treanor C. (2017). Cancer-related health behaviours of young people not in education, employment or training (‘NEET’): a cross-sectional study. BMC Cancer, 17 (1): 165-181.
  96. Strauser D.R., Lustig D.C. and Çiftçi A. (2008). Psychological well-being: Its relation to work personality, vocational identity, and career thoughts. The Journal of Psychology, 142 (1): 21-35., 10.3200/JRLP.142.1.21-36DOI: 10.3200/JRLP.142.1.21-36
  97. Tubman J.G. and Lerner R.M. (1994). Affective experiences of parents and their children from adolescence to young adulthood: Stability of affective experiences. Journal of Adolescence, 17 (1): 81-98.
  98. van der Noordt M., Ijzelenberg H., Droomers M. and Proper K.I. (2014). Health Effects of Employment: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71: 730-736.
  99. Walther A. and Pohl A. (2005). Thematic study on policy measures concerning disadvantaged youth. European Commission, DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. Tübingen: Institute for Regional Innovation and Social Research.
  100. Williamson H. (2010). Delivering a ‘NEET’ solution: An essay on an apparently intractable problem. In: Upton S., editor, Engaging Wales’ disengaged youth. Cardiff: Institute of Welsh Affairs, pp. 7-20.
  101. Winefield A.H. (1995). Unemployment: Its psychological costs. In: Cooper C.L. and Robertson I.T., editors, International review of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol. 10. Chichester, UK: Wiley, pp. 169-212.

Anna Parola, Lucia Donsì, Suspended in time. Inactivity and perceived malaise in NEET young adults in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2018, pp. 44-73, DOI:10.3280/PDS2018-003003

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content