Click here to download

Gender empowerment in a sports coaching environment: Is there a lack of understanding between male coach and female athlete?
Author/s: Lee M. Bell, Paul A. Rimmer 
Year:  2017 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  6 Pg. 187-192 FullText PDF:  267 KB
DOI:  10.3280/WE2017-002010
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

The purpose of this review was to examine existing literature on males’ attitudes towards menstruation and how this might affect the male coach-female athlete relationship and communication in the sporting environment. Menstruation can affect a number of physiolo-gical, psychological and emotional aspects of health and performance in female athletes. Evidence suggests that men do not often discuss menstruation, and in terms of the coach-athlete relationship, this too may be the case. The impact of this is reduced performance and less than optimal progression in both training and competition. Currently, there is limited evidence looking specifically at the male coach-female athlete relationship. The evidence that is available suggests an importance that the coach is able to address the cycle with their athletes, and that male coaches in particular could benefit from improving communication with their athletes to improve both health and performance in the female athlete.
Keywords: Menstruation; Female athlete and Coach; Attitudes and beliefs; Coach athlete communication; Empowerment; Emancipation.

  1. Adachi N., Nawata K., Maeta M. and Youichi Kurozawa Y. (2008). Relationship of the menstrual cycle phase to anterior cruciate ligament injuries in teenaged female athletes. Arch Ortho Trauma Surg., 128(5): 473-478.
  2. Brooks-Gunn J and Ruble D.N. (1986). Men's and women's attitudes and beliefs about the menstrual cycle. Sex Roles, 14(5-6): 287-299., DOI: 10.1007/BF00287580
  3. Bruinvels G, Burden R.J., McGregor A.J., Acherman K.E., Doodley M., Richards T. and Pedlar C.R. (2017). Sport, exercise and the menstrual cycle: where is the research? Br J Sports Med., 51(6): 487-488.
  4. Eagly A.H., Wood W. and Diekman A.B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. The developmental Social Psychology of Gender, 123-174., DOI: 10.1177/0146167200262001
  5. Franke W.W. and Berendonk B. (1997). Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government. Am Assoc Clin Chem., 43(7).
  6. Gordon B., Forbes L.E., Adams-Curtis, K.B., White K.B. and Holmgren K.M. (2003). The Role of Hostile and Benevolent Sexism in Women’s and Men’s Perceptions of the Menstruating Woman. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27(1): 58 63.
  7. Johnston-Robledo I. and Chrisler J.C. (2013). The Menstrual Mark: Menstruation as Social Stigma. Sex Roles, 68: 9.
  8. Jowett S. and Poczwardowski A. (2007). Understanding the coach-athlete relationship. In: Jowett S. and Lavallee D., eds., Social psychology in sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics: 3-14.
  9. Kidd B. (2013). Where are the female coaches? Canadian Journal for Women in Coaching, 13(1).
  10. Kishali N.F. Imamoglu O., Katkat D., Atan T. and Akyol P. (2006). Effects of menstrual cycle on sports performance. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116(12):1549-63., DOI: 10.1080/00207450600675217
  11. Laws S. (1992). It’s just the monthlies, she’ll get over it: Menstrual problems and men’s attitudes. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology Pages, 117-128., DOI: 10.1080/23293691.2015.1089149
  12. Laws S. (1990). Issues of blood: The politics of menstruation. London: Macmillan.
  13. Lirgg C.D., DiBrezzo R. and Smith A.N. (1994). Influence of gender of coach on perceptions of basketball and coaching self-efficacy and aspirations of high school female basketball players. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 3(1): 1-15.
  14. Merskin D. (1999). Adolescence, advertising, and the ideology of menstruation. Sex Roles, 40: 941-957., DOI: 10.1023/A:1018881206965
  15. Moreno-Black G. and Vallianatos H. (2005). Young Women’s Experiences of Menstruation and Athletics. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 33(1-2): 50-67.
  16. Peranovic T. and Bentley B. (2017). Men and Menstruation: A Qualitative Exploration of Beliefs, Attitudes and Experiences. Sex Roles, 77(1-2): 113-124.
  17. Rezania D. and Gurey R. (2014). Building successful student-athlete coach relationships: examining coaching practices and commitment to the coach. Springerplus, 3: 383., DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-383
  18. Sorensen E.A. (2009). Debunking the myth of pregnancy doping. Human Kinetics Journal, 2(2): 269-285.
  19. Stirling A.E. and Kerr G.A. (2009). Abused athletes’perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship. Sport in Society, 12(2): 227-239., DOI: 10.1080/17430430802591019
  20. Tomlinson A. and Yorganci I. (1997). Male coach/female athlete relations: gender and power relations in competitive sport. J Sport Social Issues, 21(2): 134-155., DOI: 10.1177/019372397021002003
  21. Walker A. (1992). Men’s and women’s beliefs about the influence of the menstrual cycle on academic performance: A preliminary study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(11): 896-909.

Lee M. Bell, Paul A. Rimmer, in "WELFARE E ERGONOMIA" 2/2017, pp. 187-192, DOI:10.3280/WE2017-002010


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content