Clicca qui per scaricare

Tolerance toward migrants among Italian adolescents and young adults: The role of civic and political participation
Titolo Rivista: PSICOLOGIA DI COMUNITA’ 
Autori/Curatori: Iana Tzankova, Antonella Guarino, Davide Mazzoni 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2019 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  20 P. 49-68 Dimensione file:  326 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PSC2019-001005
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


This paper aims at clarifying the relationship between being involved in different forms of participation and tolerance toward migrants in young people. Almost 3000 participants from two European-funded research projects - FP7 PIDOP and H2020 CATCH-EyoU - answered a questionnaire that measured socio-demographics variables, the dimension of fairness in school climate, different forms of civic and political participation, and tolerance toward mi-grants and refugees. The results are consistent between the two studies, showing that civic participation demonstrated a major positive effect on tolerance. Being older, female, born in a foreign country, having more educated parents, and perceiving fairness at school, were also conditions, which sustained the development of tolerance.

Questo studio ha lo scopo di chiarire la relazione tra il coinvolgimento in diverse forme di partecipazione e la tolleranza verso i migranti tra i giovani. Circa 3000 adolescenti e giovani contattati nell’ambito di due progetti di ricerca Europei - FP7 PIDOP e H2020 CATCH-EyoU - hanno risposto a questionari che misuravano variabili socio-demografiche, la dimensione di giustizia nella percezione del clima scolastico, diverse forme di partecipazione civica e politica, e la tolleranza verso migranti e rifugiati. I risultati sono coerenti tra i due studi, dimostrando un effetto positivo della partecipazione civica sulla tolleranza. Ulteriori fattori che risultano incre-mentare la tolleranza sono: avere un’età maggiore, essere donne e nate/i in un paese estero, avere genitori con livello d’istruzione più alto, e percepire un clima di giustizia a scuola.
Keywords: Tolleranza, migranti, adolescenti, giovani adulti, partecipazione civica, parteci-pazione politica

  1. Abrams, D., & Rutland, A. (2008). The development of subjective group dynamics. In S. R. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 47-65). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  2. Arnett, J.J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.
  3. Bansak, K., Hainmueller, J., & Hangartner, D. (2016). How economic, humanitarian, and religious concerns shape European attitudes toward asylum seekers. Science, 22 Sep 2016.
  4. Barbieri, I., & Zani, B. (2015). Multiple Sense of Community, identity and well-being in a context of multi culture: A mediation model. Community Psychology in Global Perspective, 1(2), 40-60.
  5. Benish-Weisman, M., Daniel, E., Schiefer, D., Möllering, A., & Knafo-Noam, A. (2015). Multiple social identifications and adolescents’ self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 44, 21-31.
  6. Brechwald, W.A., & Prinstein, M.J. (2011). Beyond homophily: A decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 166-179.
  7. Cicognani, E., Noack, P., & Macek, P. (2019). CATCH-EyoU. Processes in Youth’s Construction of Active EU Citizenship. Italian Wave 1 Questionnaires. EXTRACT. Tolerance and Political Participation. University of Bologna. -- http://doi.org/10.6092/unibo/amsacta/6146 [Dataset]
  8. Cortina, J.M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98-104., 10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.9DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.9
  9. Côté, R.R., & Erickson, B.H. (2009). Untangling the roots of tolerance: How forms of social capital shape attitudes toward ethnic minorities and immigrants. American Behavioral Scientist, 52, 1664-1689., 10.1177/000276420933153DOI: 10.1177/000276420933153
  10. Council of Europe (2008). White Paper on intercultural dialogue “Living together as equals in dignity”. Strasbourg: Committee of Ministers, Council of Europe. -- Retrieved from: http://www.coe.int
  11. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing.
  12. Emler, N., & Frazer, E. (1999). Politics: The education effect. Oxford Review of Education, 25(1/2), 251-273., 10.1080/03054989910424DOI: 10.1080/03054989910424
  13. Emler, N. (2005). Life course transitions and social identity change. Advances in Life Course Research, 10, 197-215., 10.1016/S1040-2608(05)10007-DOI: 10.1016/S1040-2608(05)10007-
  14. Escandell, X. (2004). The impact of political engagement on social and political tolerance toward immigrants in Southern Europe. UC San Diego: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. -- Tratto da https://escholarship.org/uc/item/3032c686
  15. European Union (2017). How culture and the arts can promote intercultural dialogue in the context of the migratory and refugee crisis. Report with case studies, by the working group of EU Member States’ experts on intercultural dialogue in the context of the migratory and refugee crisis under the open method of coordination. Luxembourg: Publication office of the European Union., 10.2766/46852DOI: 10.2766/46852
  16. Flanagan, C., & Levine, P. (2010). Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood. The Future of Children, 20(1), 159-179. -- https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ883084.pdf
  17. Freitag, M., & Rapp, C. (2015). The personal foundations of political tolerance towards immigrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41, 351-373., 10.1080/1369183X.2014.92484DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2014.92484
  18. French, S.E., Seidman, E., Allen, L., & Aber, J.L. (2006). The development of ethnic identity during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 42, 1-10., 10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.
  19. Gerson, M.W., & Nielson, L. (2014). The importance of identity development, principled moral reasoning, and empathy as predictors of openness to diversity in emerging adults. SAGE Open, October-Dicember 2014, 1-11., 10.1177/215824401455358DOI: 10.1177/215824401455358
  20. Gniewosz, B., & Noack, P. (2008). Classroom climate indicators and attitudes towards foreigners. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 609-624.
  21. Hahn, C.L. (1999). Citizenship education: an empirical study of policy, practices and outcomes. Oxford Review of Education, 25(1-2), 253-250., 10.1080/03054989910423DOI: 10.1080/03054989910423
  22. Hjerm, M. (2009). Prejudice toward immigrants and cross-municipal variation in the proportion of immigrants. Acta Sociologica, 52, 47-62., 10.1177/000169930810063DOI: 10.1177/000169930810063
  23. Langerak, E. (1994). Pluralism, tolerance, and disagreement. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 24, 95-105., 10.1080/0277394940939100DOI: 10.1080/0277394940939100
  24. King, P.M., & Baxter Magolda, M.B. (2005). A developmental model of intercultural maturity. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 571-592.
  25. Kubal, T., Stone, R.T., Meyler, D., & Mauney, T.T. (2003). Teaching diversity and learning outcomes: Bringing lived experience into the classroom. Teaching Sociology, 31, 441-455. -- https://www.jstor.org/stable/3211368
  26. Mazzoni D., Cicognani E., Tzankova I., Guarino A., Albanesi C., & Zani B. (in press, 2019). Civic participation and other interventions that promote children’s tolerance of immigrants. In N. Balvin & D. Crisitie (Eds.), Children and Peace: From Research to Action. Springer.
  27. Raabe, T., & Beelmann, A. (2011). Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: A multinational meta-analysis of age differences. Child Development, 82(6), 1715-1737.
  28. Ramberg, I. (2005). Committed to making a difference. Racism, antisemitism, xenophobia, and intolerance and their impact on young people in Europe. Hungary: Council of Europe.
  29. Rapp, C. (2017). Shaping tolerant attitudes towards immigrants: The role of welfare state expenditures. Journal of European Social Policy, 27, 40-56., 10.1177/095892871667218DOI: 10.1177/095892871667218
  30. Rapp, C., & Freitag, M. (2014). Teaching tolerance? Associational diversity and tolerance formation. Political Studies, 63, 1031-1051., 10.1111/1467-9248.1214DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.1214
  31. Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Kerr, D., & Losito, B. (2010). ICCS 2009 international report: Civic knowledge, attitudes, and engagement among lower-secondary school students in 38 countries. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).
  32. Streiner, D.L (2003). Starting at the beginning: An introduction to coefficient Alpha and internal consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80(1), 99-103., 10.1207/S15327752JPA8001_1DOI: 10.1207/S15327752JPA8001_1
  33. Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., & Schulz, W. (2001). Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
  34. UNESCO (1995). Declaration of principles on tolerance (16 November 1995). Tratto da -- http://portal.unesco.org
  35. UNESCO (1997). Defining tolerance. Tratto da -- http://unesdoc.unesco.org
  36. UNESCO (2015). Global Citizenship Education: Topics and learning objectives. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Tratto da -- http://unesdoc.unesco.org
  37. Van Zalk, M.H., & Kerr, M. (2014). Developmental trajectories of prejudice and tolerance toward immigrants from early to late adolescence. Journal Youth Adolescence, 43, 1658-1671.
  38. Van Zalk, M.H.W., Van Zalk, N., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2013). Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: Cross-influence processes within friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 627-639.
  39. Verkuyten, M. (2018). The benefits of studying immigration for social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 48(3), 225-239.
  40. Verkuyten, M. & Yogeeswaran, K. (2017). The social psychology of intergroup toleration: A roadmap for theory and research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21(1), 72-96., 10.1177/108886831664097DOI: 10.1177/108886831664097
  41. Watts, R., & Flanagan, C. (2007). Pushing the envelope on youth civic engagement: A developmental and liberation psychology perspective. Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 779-792.
  42. West, S.G., Finch, J.F., & Curran, P.J. (1996). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: problems and remedies. In R.H Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues and applications (pp. 56-75). Newbery Park, CA: Sage.
  43. Wise, J. & Driskell, R. (2017). Tolerance within community: Does social capital affect tolerance? Social Indicator Research, 134, 607-629.



  1. Davide Mazzoni, Elvira Cicognani, Iana Tzankova, Antonella Guarino, Cinzia Albanesi, Bruna Zani, Children and Peace pp. 89 (ISBN:978-3-030-22175-1)

Iana Tzankova, Antonella Guarino, Davide Mazzoni, in "PSICOLOGIA DI COMUNITA’" 1/2019, pp. 49-68, DOI:10.3280/PSC2019-001005

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche