The epidemiology of tumors has always been analyzed with an optic of stratification by gender, both because some very relevant sites for incidence and mortality are gender specific, such as breast, uterus, prostate, and because the incidence for some sites is so different between males and females as for example the lung for men, the thyroid for women. This habit of stratification by sex, however, has not fostered a gender perspective in cancer prevention and treatment. In many aspects of prevention and care men and women have different approaches to the disease. The outcomes that the disease has on the state of health have different values, as in the case of the impact of therapies on reproductive health. Finally, there are genuine gender inequalities with a greater impact on economic resources, working conditions and the management of women’s leisure time when it comes to caring for a cancer patient in a family.
Keywords: Gender medicine; epidemiology; cancer; palliative and end-of-life care.