Clicca qui per scaricare

"Trying to make it a home". An analysis of the opportunities asylum seekers have in order to develop long-lasting emplacement processes in South Tyrol, Italy
Titolo Rivista: MONDI MIGRANTI 
Autori/Curatori: Claudia Lintner, Susanne Ursula Elsen, Ulrike Folie 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2019 Fascicolo: Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  19 P. 129-147 Dimensione file:  184 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MM2019-002007
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


The document discusses the opportunities for asylum seekers to build emplacement processes. In this way, it supports a double understanding of personal placement processes, which implies a consideration of both the subjective level of action and the social environment that can hinder or improve the experience of personal placement of an asylum seeker. From April 2016 to March 2017 25 interviews were conducted with asylum seekers in South Tyrol Data analysis is based on a qualitative research project, which follows an inductive research approach and adopts an approach of mixed qualitative methods: semi-structured interviews , narrative interviews, observation of the participants and group discussions As this document shows, to understand the duality of the processes of emplacement it is fundamental to understand the interaction between the subjective abilities of indi-viduals to act and make their own choices and the structural circumstances that determine , limit or enable such actions Job opportunities are one of the central el-ements of it the promotion of social integration. Work in this context is seen not only as an economic activity that allows asylum seekers to earn money and sup-port the remaining family members, but also as a way to overcome idleness and inactivity.

Il documento discute le opportunità dei richiedenti asilo di costruire processi di em-placement. In tal modo, essa sostiene una doppia comprensione dei processi di col-locazione personale, che implica una considerazione sia del livello soggettivo dell’agire che dell’ambiente sociale che può ostacolare o migliorare l’esperienza di collocamento personale di un richiedente asilo. Da aprile 2016 a marzo 2017 sono state effettuate 25 interviste con richiedenti asilo in Alto Adige. L’analisi dei dati si basa su un progetto di ricerca qualitativo, che segue un approccio di ricerca indut-tivo e adotta un approccio di metodi qualitativi misti: interviste semi-strutturate, interviste narrative, osservazione dei partecipanti e discussioni di gruppo. Come mostra questo documento, per comprendere la dualità dei processi di emplacement è fondamentale comprendere l’interazione tra le capacità soggettive degli individui di agire e fare le proprie scelte e le circostanze strutturali che determinano, limitano o abilitano tali azioni. Le opportunità di lavoro sono uno degli elementi centrali nella promozione dell'integrazione sociale. Il lavoro in questo contesto è visto non solo come un'attività economica che consente ai richiedenti asilo di guadagnare denaro e sostenere i familiari rimasti, ma anche come un modo per superare l’ozio e l’inattività.
Keywords: Richiedente asilo, dislocamento, collocazione, integrazione sociale, opportunità.

  1. Agamben G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life; Translated by D. Heller-Roazen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  2. Anderson J. (1995). Translator’s introduction. In: Honneth A., The struggle for recognition. The moral grammar of social conflicts (pp. x-xxi). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mit Press.
  3. Arendt H. (1998). The human condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  4. Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol, Abteilung Soziales, & Institut für Minderheitenrecht, Eurac Research. (March 2017). Asyl und Flüchtlinge in Südtirol [Asylum and Refugees in South Tyrol]. Text available at the webside 18.06.17: -- http://www.provinz.bz.it/news/de/news.asp?news_action=4&news_article_id=582489.
  5. Aysa-Lastra M. and Cachón L., eds. (2015). Immigrant vulnerability and resilience: Comparative perspectives on Latin American immigrants during the Great Recession. New York: Springer.
  6. Barmaki R. (2009). Criminals/Refugees in the Age of Welfareless States: Zygmunt Bauman on Ethnicity, Asylum and the new ‘Criminal’. International Journal of Criminology & Sociological Theory, 2, 1: 251- 266; -- https://ijcst.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/ijcst/article/viewFile/22246/20816.
  7. Berger P.L. and Luckmann T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Penguin Books.
  8. Bauman Z. (2004). Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  9. Bauman Z. (1998). On Universal Morality and the morality of Universalism. European Journal of Development Research, 10, 2: 7-18;, 10.1080/09578819808426713DOI: 10.1080/09578819808426713
  10. Blumer H. (1966). Sociological Implications of the Thought of George Herbert Mead. American Journal of Sociology, 71, 5: 535-544;, 10.1086/224171DOI: 10.1086/224171
  11. Boccagni P. (2017). Migration and the Search for Home. Mapping Domestic Spaces in Migrants’ Everyday Lives. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
  12. Bourdieu P. (1983). Ökonomisches Kapital, kulturelles Kapital, soziales Kapital. In: Kreckel R., ed., Soziale Ungleichheiten (pp. 183-198). Göttingen: Schwartz.
  13. Brun C. (2001). Reterritorializing the Relationship between People and Place in Refugee Studies. Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography, 83, 1: 15-25; https://www.jstor.org/stable/491116.
  14. Castles S. (2011). Globalisation, ethnic identity and the integration crisis. Ethnicities 11: 23-26;, 10.1177/14687968110110010204.DOI: 10.1177/14687968110110010204.
  15. Coleman J.S. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  16. De Wet C. (2015). Reconsidering displacement in southern Africa. Anthropology Southern Africa, 31, 3-4: 114-122;, 10.1080/23323256.2008.11499970DOI: 10.1080/23323256.2008.11499970
  17. Doná G. (2015). Making Homes in Limbo: Embodied Virtual “Homes” in Prolonged Conditions of Displacement. Refuge, 31, 1: 67-73; http://refuge.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/refuge/article/view/40298/36344.
  18. Doná G. (2010). Rethinking well-being: from contexts to processes. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 6, 2: 3-14;
  19. Doná G. (2002). Refugees’ wellbeing in countries of resettlement. Social work in Europe, 9, 1: 41-48; -- http://roar.uel.ac.uk/635/1/Dona%2C%20G%20%282002%29%20SWIE%209%20%281%29%2041-48.pdf.
  20. Elsen S. and Walk H. (2016). Genossenschaften und Zivilgesellschaft. Historische Dynamiken und zukunftsfähige Potenziale einer ökosozialen Transformation. Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen, 29, 3: 60- 73.
  21. Essed P. and Wesenbeek R. (2004). Contested Refugee Status: Human Rights, Ethics and Social Responsibilities. In: Essed P., Frerks G. and Schrijvers J., eds., Refugees and the Transformation of Societies: Agency, Policies, Ethics and Politics (pp. 53-65). New York: Berghahn Books.
  22. European Commission. (2017). Refugees and internally displaced persons; -- http://ec.europa.eu/echo/what-we-do/humanitarian-aid/refugees-and-internally-displaced-persons_en.
  23. Flynn M. (2007). Reconstructing ‘Home/lands’ in the Russian Federation: Migrant-Centered Perspectives of Displacement and Resettlement. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33, 3: 461-481;, 10.1080/13691830701234756DOI: 10.1080/13691830701234756
  24. Ghorashi, H. (2005). Agents of Change or Passive Victims: The Impact of Welfare States (the Case of the Netherlands) on Refugees. Journal of Refugee Studies, 18, 2: 181-198;
  25. Giddens A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkley/ Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  26. Goffman E. (1961). Asylums: essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New York: Doubleday & Company.
  27. Gupta J. (2013). The Central Role of Occupation in the Doing, Being and Belonging of Immigrant Women. Journal of Occupational Science, 20, 1: 23-35;, 10.1080/14427591.2012.717499DOI: 10.1080/14427591.2012.717499
  28. Gupta J. (2012). Human displacement, occupational disruptions, and reintegration: a case study. Wfot Bulletin, 66: 27-29;
  29. Habermas J. (2011). Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
  30. Honneth A. (1995). The struggle for recognition. The moral grammar of social conflicts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mit Press.
  31. Italian Ministry of the Interior. (2017). Cruscotto statistico giornaliero; -- http://www.interno.gov.it/sites/default/files/cruscotto_statistico_giornaliero_del_19_ luglio_2017.pdf.
  32. Italian Ministry of the Interior. (2017). Sprar. Presentazione delle domande di contributo da parte degli enti locali che prestano servizi finalizzati all’accoglienza di richiedenti e di titolari di protezione internazionale ed umanitaria, biennio 2016-2017; -- http://www.interno.gov.it/it/amministrazione-trasparente/bandi-gara-e-contratti/sprar-presentazione-domande-contributo-parte-enti-locali-prestano-servizi-finalizzati-allaccoglienza-richiedenti-e-titolari-protezione-internazionale-ed-umanitaria-biennio-2016-2017.
  33. Kao G. and Taggart Rutherford L. (2007). Does Social Capital Still Matter? Immigrant Minority Disadvantage in Social Capital and Its Effects on Academic Achievement. Sociological Perspectives, 50: 27-52; -- http://works.bepress.com/grace_kao/28/.
  34. Korac M. (2009). Remaking Home. Reconstructing Life, Place and Identity in Rome and Amsterdam. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books.
  35. Kramer S. and Bala J. (2004). Managing uncertainty; coping styles of refugees in western countries. Intervention, 2, 1: 33-42; -- https://psychotraumanet.org/sites/default/files/documents/int_021.pdf.
  36. Lennartsson R. (2007). “You are nobody while you are waiting”: asylum seekers’ experiences of nothingness. Ethnologia Scandinavica. A journal for Nordic ethnology, 27: 21-34.
  37. Nussbaum M.C. (1997). Capabilities and Human Rights. Fordham Law Review, 66, 2: 273-300; -- http://www.palermo.edu/Archivos_content/2015/derecho/pobreza_multidimensional/bibliografia/Sesion3_doc1.pdf.
  38. Nussbaum M.C. (2010). Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  39. Otto H.U. and Ziegler H. (2008). Der Capabilities-Ansatz als neue Orientierung in der Erziehungswissenschaft. In: Otto H.U. and Ziegler H., eds., Capabilities – Handlungsbefähigung und Verwirklichungschancen in der Erziehungswissenschaft (pp. 9-13). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.
  40. Owens P. (2010). Reclaiming ‘Bare Life’: Against Agamben on Refugees. International relations, 5: 567-582; -- http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/37545096/Owens_2009_Against_Agamben.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=pdf.
  41. Portes A. (2008). Migration and Social Change: Some Conceptual Reflections. -- https://www.imi.ox.ac.uk/events/theories-of-migration-and-social-change/portes.pdf.
  42. Portes A. and Sensenbrenner J. (1993). Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 6: 1320-1350;, 10.1086/230191DOI: 10.1086/230191
  43. Sampson R. and Gifford S.M. (2010). Place-making, settlement and well-being: The therapeutic landscapes of recently arrived youth with refugee backgrounds. Health & Place, 16: 116-131;
  44. Sayad A. (2002). La doppia assenza. Dalle illusioni dell’emigrato alle sofferenze dell’immigrato. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.
  45. Schiller N.G. and Çağlar A. (2016). Displacement, emplacement and migrant newcomers: rethinking urban sociabilities within multiscalar power. Global Studies in Culture and Power, 23, 1: 17-34;, 10.1080/1070289X.2015.1016520DOI: 10.1080/1070289X.2015.1016520
  46. Sen A. (2010). Social exclusion: concept, application, and scrutiny (Social Development Papers No. 1). Manila: Asian Development Bank. -- Text available at the webside 06.06.17: https://think-asia.org/bitstream/handle/11540/2339/social-exclusion.pdf?sequence=1.
  47. Sen A. (2005). Human Rights and Capabilities. Journal of Human Development, 6, 2: 151-166;, 10.1080/14649880500120491DOI: 10.1080/14649880500120491
  48. Stewart E. (2005). Exploring the vulnerability of asylum seekers in the UK. Population, Space and Place, 11: 499-512;
  49. Strauss A. and Corbin J. (1994). Grounded Theory Methodology. An Overview. In: Norman K.D. and Lincoln Y.S., eds., Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp.273-285). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  50. Stroebe W. and Stroebe M. and Abakoumkin G. and Schut H. (1995). The role of loneliness and social support in adjustment to loss: a test of attachment versus stress theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 6: 1241-1249; -- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8667164
  51. Zavaleta R.D. (2007). The Ability to go about Without Shame: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Shame and Humiliation. Oxford Development Studies, 35, 4: 405-430; ledge., 10.1080/13600810701701905DOI: 10.1080/13600810701701905

Claudia Lintner, Susanne Ursula Elsen, Ulrike Folie, "Cercare di diventare una casa". Un’analisi delle opportunità che i richiedenti asilo hanno per sviluppare processi di insediamento di lunga durata in Alto Adige, Italia in "MONDI MIGRANTI" 2/2019, pp. 129-147, DOI:10.3280/MM2019-002007

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche