The last twenty-fi ve years of European integration have been years of change both on the institutional front (the Maastricht Treaty; the Amsterdam Treaty and the Lisbon Treaty --only to mention the most important moments) and on the side of political culture, especially in the Italian context. The aim of the present essay is to provide an analysis of the changes occurred in Italian public opinion and in the Italian party leadership toward the European Union. The work is divided into three parts: the fi rst part will give an account of the trend in terms of changing public opinion; in the second part, we will analyse the changes detected in the Italian party leadership, highlighting the reading that the parties have given to Europe starting from the recent electoral programs (2018). The third part will propose an interpretative scheme to understand the changes occurred.
Keywords: Europe, political parties, political cultures