This analytical note aims to affront the problem of demographic decline, by associating it to the two related aspects: education and paid employment, exam-ined through gender and territorial lenses. The hypothesis we explore is that higher investment in education is seen as a form of compensation for motherhood penalty, meant to be a loss in earnings experienced by mothers after the child-birth, with respect to both women without children and even more so with respect to men. The increasing duration of studies turns to be a form of a trap for women, both in case they postpone procreation until when it could be too late, sacrificing this way the effective fertility, and when they decide to give birth too early, influ-encing then the process of getting into job and remaining at work later in life. After a brief recall of the theoretical approach chosen for this study, we pro-ceed with a descriptive analysis of the phenomenon in question. Finally, we iden-tify the type of interventions which are necessary to reconcile - from the microe-conomic and household point of view - the productive and reproductive spheres of life and allow - from the macroeconomic and social point of view - for higher educational attainments, fertility and employment.
Keywords: Education, Fertility, Female Employment