Click here to download

Taking up the challenge of organizational inclusion: A conceptual framework for including "diverse" individuals within organizations
Journal Title: STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI  
Author/s: Antonio Daood, Mauro Gatti 
Year:  2020 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  25 Pg. 93-117 FullText PDF:  299 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SO2020-001004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


In the last few decades, inclusion has captured the attention of corporate leaders and prominent researchers. Business organizations, as non-spontaneous social systems, are particularly prone to be non-inclusive venues due to diversity among organizational populations which consist of groups of coworkers who are usually not entitled to choose their colleagues. This paper aims to enrich the understanding of inclusion within organizations, investigating its social dimension (the extent to which individuals feel woven into the social fabric of their organization) and the occupational dimension (the extent to which organizational members are involved in critical organizational processes). Building on the different bodies of literature on diversity and inclusion, leadership, human resource management, and organizational culture, the present study develops a conceptual framework on the dynamics of inclusion at the individual-organization level, emphasizing the roles of leadership and human resource management practices in establishing an inclusive culture and the subsequent synergistic inclusion of diversity within the workplace.
Keywords: Inclusion, inclusive culture, diversity, human resource management, leadership

  1. Agars, M. D., Kottke, J. L. (2004), “Models and practice of diversity management: A historical review and presentation of a new integration theory”, in Stockdale M., Crosby F. (eds.), The psychological and organizational bases of discrimination at work, Malden, Blackwell.
  2. Aselage, J., Eisenberger, R. (2003), “Perceived organizational support and psychological contracts: A theoretical integration”, Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 24(5): 491-509,
  3. Ashforth, B. E., Schinoff, B. S., Rogers, K. M. (2016), ““I identify with her”,“I identify with him”: Unpacking the dynamics of personal identification in organizations”, Academy of Management Review, 41(1): 28-60,
  4. Bell, M. P. (2011), Diversity in organizations, Mason, Cengage Learning.
  5. Boekhorst, J. A. (2015), “The role of authentic leadership in fostering workplace inclusion: A social information processing perspective”, Human Resource Management, 54(2): 241-264,
  6. Boehm, S. A., Dwertmann, D. J. (2014), “Forging a single-edged sword: Facilitating positive age and disability diversity effects in the workplace through leadership, positive climates, and HR practices”, Work, Aging and Retirement, 0: 1-23,
  7. Boehm, S. A., Dwertmann, D. J., Kunze, F., Michaelis, B., Parks, K. M., McDonald, D. P. (2014), “Expanding insights on the diversity climate–performance link: The role of workgroup discrimination and group size”, Human Resource Management, 53(3): 379-402,
  8. Bowen, D. E., Ostroff, C. (2004), “Understanding HRM–firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system”, Academy of Management Review, 29(2): 203-221,
  9. Chavez, C. I., Weisinger, J. Y. (2008), “Beyond diversity training: A social infusion for cultural inclusion”, Human Resource Management, 47(2): 331-350,
  10. Cho, S., Mor Barak, M. E. (2008), “Understanding of diversity and inclusion in a perceived homogeneous culture: A study of organizational commitment and job performance among Korean employees”, Administration in Social Work, 32(4): 100-126,, DOI: 10.1080/03643100802293865
  11. Chrobot-Mason, D., Aramovich, N. P. (2013), “The psychological benefits of creating an affirming climate for workplace diversity”, Group & Organization Management, 38(6): 659-689,, DOI: 10.1177/1059601113509835
  12. Chrobot-Mason, D., Thomas, K. M. (2002), “Minority employees in majority organizations: The intersection of individual and organizational racial identity in the workplace”, Human Resource Development Review, 1(3): 323-344,
  13. Cornelissen, J. (2017), “Editor’s comments: Developing propositions, a process model, or a typology? Addressing the challenges of writing theory without a boilerplate”, Academy of Management Review, 42(1): 1-9,
  14. Cox, T., Jr. (1991), “The multicultural organization”, Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(2): 34-47,
  15. Cox, T. H., Blake, S. (1991), “Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness”, Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(3): 45-56,
  16. Czarniawska, B. (2006), “Doing gender unto the other: fiction as a mode of studying gender discrimination in organizations”, Gender, Work & Organization, 13(3): 234-253,
  17. Davies, S. E., Stoermer, S., Froese, F. J. (2019), “When the going gets tough: the influence of expatriate resilience and perceived organizational inclusion climate on work adjustment and turnover intentions”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(8): 1393-1417,, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2018.1528558.
  18. Dwertmann, D. J., Nishii, L. H., Van Knippenberg, D. (2016), “Disentangling the Fairness & Discrimination and Synergy Perspectives on Diversity Climate Moving the Field Forward”, Journal of Management, 42(5): 1136–1168,, DOI: 10.1177/0149206316630380
  19. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., Sowa, D. (1986), “Perceived organizational support”, Journal of Applied psychology, 71(3): 500-507.
  20. Elsass, P. M., Graves, L. M. (1997), “Demographic diversity in decision-making groups: The experiences of women and people of color”, Academy of Management Review, 22(4): 946-973,, DOI: 10.2307/259250
  21. Ely, R. J., Thomas, D. A. (2001), “Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(2): 229-273,, DOI: 10.2307/2667087
  22. Giustiniano, L., Lombardi, S., Cavaliere, V. (2016), “How knowledge collecting fosters organizational creativity”, Management Decision, 54(6): 1464-1496,, DOI: 10.1108/MD-04-2015-0111
  23. Glisson, C. (2015), “The role of organizational culture and climate in innovation and effectiveness”, Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39(4): 245-250,, DOI: 10.1080/23303131.2015.1087770
  24. Gotsis, G., Grimani, K. (2016), “The role of servant leadership in fostering inclusive organizations”, Journal of Management Development, 35(8): 985-1010,, DOI: 10.1108/JMD-07-2015-0095
  25. Hall, E. V., Hall, A. V., Galinsky, A. D., Phillips, K. W. (2019), “MOSAIC: a model of stereotyping through associated and intersectional categories”, Academy of Management Review, 44(3): 643-672,
  26. Harrison, D. A., Klein, K. J. (2007), “What's the difference? Diversity constructs as separation, variety, or disparity in organizations”, Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1199-1228,
  27. Hofstede, G. (1993), “Cultural constraints in management theories”, Academy of Management Perspectives, 7(1): 81-94,
  28. Hollander, E. P. (2009), Inclusive leadership: The essential leader-follower relationship, New York, Routledge.
  29. James, L. R., Choi, C. C., Ko, C. H. E., McNeil, P. K., Minton, M. K., Wright, M. A., Kim, K. I. (2008), “Organizational and psychological climate: A review of theory and research”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(1): 5-32,, DOI: 10.1080/13594320701662550
  30. Jesson, J., Matheson, Lacey, F. M. (2011), Doing your literature review: Traditional and systematic techniques, London, Sage.
  31. Jo, J., Ellingson, J. E. (2019), “Social Relationships and Turnover: A Multidisciplinary Review and Integration”, Group & Organization Management, 44(2): 247-287,, DOI: 10.1177/1059601119834407
  32. Kahneman, D. (2011), Thinking, fast and slow, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  33. Luthans, F. (2011), Organizational Behavior: An evidence based approach, New York, McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  34. McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R. (2015), “Diversity climate in organizations: Current wisdom and domains of uncertainty”, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 33: 191-233,, DOI: 10.1108/S0742-730120150000033008
  35. March, J. G., Simon, H.A. (1963), Qrganizations, New York, John Wiley and Sons.
  36. Miller, F., Katz, J. (2002), Inclusion Breakthrough: Unleashing the Real Power of Diversity, San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler.
  37. Milliken, F. J., Martins, L. L. (1996), “Searching for common threads: Understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups”, Academy of Management Review, 21(2): 402-433,, DOI: 10.2307/258667
  38. Morrison, E. W. (2002), “Newcomers’ relationships: The role of social network ties during socialization”, Academy of Management Journal, 45(6): 1149-1160,, DOI: 10.5465/3069430
  39. Nishii, L.H. (2013), “The benefits of climate for inclusion for gender-diverse groups”, Academy of Management Journal, 56(6): 1754-1774,
  40. Nishii, L. H., Mayer, D. M. (2009), “Do inclusive leaders help to reduce turnover in diverse groups? The moderating role of leader–member exchange in the diversity to turnover relationship”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6): 1412-1426,
  41. Omilion-Hodges, L. M., Baker, C. R. (2017), “Communicating Leader-Member Relationship Quality: The Development of Leader Communication Exchange Scales to Measure Relationship Building and Maintenance Through the Exchange of Communication-Based Goods”, International Journal of Business Communication, 54(2): 115-145,, DOI: 10.1177/2329488416687052
  42. Oswick, C., Noon, M. (2014), “Discourses of diversity, equality and inclusion: trenchant formulations or transient fashions?”, British Journal of Management, 25(1): 23-39,
  43. Pearce, J. L., Randel, A. E. (2004), “Expectations of organizational mobility, workplace social inclusion, and employee job performance”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25: 81-98,
  44. Pelled, L. H., Ledford, G. E., Albers Mohrman, S. (1999), “Demographic dissimilarity and workplace inclusion”, Journal of Management Studies, 36(7): 1013-1031,, DOI: 10.1111/1467-6486.00168
  45. Phillips, K. W., Duguid, M., Thomas-Hunt, M., Uparna, J. (2013), “Diversity as knowledge exchange: The roles of information processing, expertise, and status”, in Roberson Q. M. (ed.), The Oxford handbook of diversity and work, New York, Oxford University Press.
  46. Probst, T. M. (2005), “Countering the negative effects of job insecurity through participative decision making: lessons from the demand-control model”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(4): 320-329,, DOI: 10.1037/1076-8998.10.4.320
  47. Richard, O. C., Miller, C. D. (2013), “Considering diversity as a source of competitive advantage in organizations”, in Roberson Q. M. (ed.), The Oxford handbook of diversity and work (pp. 239-250), New York, Oxford University Press.
  48. Ramarajan, L., Reid, E. (2013), “Shattering the myth of separate worlds: Negotiating nonwork identities at work”, Academy of Management Review, 38(4): 621-644,
  49. Randel, A. E., Galvin, B. M., Shore, L. M., Ehrhart, K. H., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Kedharnath, U. (2018), “Inclusive leadership: Realizing positive outcomes through belongingness and being valued for uniqueness”, Human Resource Management Review, 28(2): 190-203,
  50. Ragins, B. R., Singh, R., Cornwell, J. M. (2007), “Making the invisible visible: fear and disclosure of sexual orientation at work”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4): 1103-1118,, DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.1103
  51. Ruben, B. D., Gigliotti, R. A. (2016), “Leadership as social influence: An expanded view of leadership communication theory and practice”, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 23(4): 467-479,, DOI: 10.1177/1548051816641876
  52. Roberson, Q. M. (2006), “Disentangling the meanings of diversity and inclusion in organizations”, Group & Organization Management, 31(2): 212-236,, DOI: 10.1177/1059601104273064
  53. Salancik, G. R., Pfeffer, J. (1978), “A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(2): 224-253,, DOI: 10.2307/2392563
  54. Sezerel, H., Tonus, H. Z. (2014), “The soft element of strategic human resource management: the employee's perception of diversity climate”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150: 354-359,
  55. Schein, E. H. (1995), The leader of the future, Cambridge, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  56. Schein, E. H. (2010), Organizational culture and leadership, San Francisco, John Wiley & Sons.
  57. Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., Macey, W. H. (2013), “Organizational climate and culture”, Annual Review of Psychology, 64: 361-388,
  58. Shore, L. M., Cleveland, J. N., Sanchez, D. (2018), “Inclusive workplaces: A review and model”, Human Resource Management Review, 28(2): 176-189,
  59. Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Holcombe Ehrhart, K., Singh, G. (2011), “Inclusion and diversity in work groups: A review and model for future research”, Journal of Management, 37(4): 1262-1289,, DOI: 10.1177/0149206310385943
  60. Shutz, W. (1966), The interpersonal underworld, Palo Alto, Science & Behavior Books.
  61. Stajkovic, A. D., Luthans, F. (2003), “Social cognitive theory and self-efficacy: Implications for motivation theory and practice”, in Porter L. W., Bigley G. A., Steers R. M., (Eds.), Motivation and work behavior (7th ed, pp. 126-140), Burr Ridge, McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  62. Syed, J., Boje, D. (2011), “Antenarratives of negotiated diversity management”, in Boje D. (Ed.), Storytelling and the Future of Organizations, New York, Routledge.
  63. Thomas, D. A., Ely, R. J. (1996), “Making differences matter”, Harvard Business Review, 74(5): 79-90.
  64. York, K. M., Tyler, C. L., Tyler, J. M., Gugel, P. E. (2008), “The ever-changing face of sex stereotyping and sex discrimination in the workplace”, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(2): 123-134,, DOI: 10.1177/1548051808321692
  65. Wasserman, I. C., Gallegos, P. V., Ferdman, B. M. (2008), “Dancing with resistance: Leadership challenges in fostering a culture of inclusion”, in Thomas K. M. (Ed.), Diversity resistance in organizations, New York, Taylor & Francis.
  66. Wright, P. M., McMahan, G. C., McWilliams, A. (1994), “Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: a resource-based perspective”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(2): 301-326,, DOI: 10.1080/09585199400000020

Antonio Daood, Mauro Gatti, in "STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI " 1/2020, pp. 93-117, DOI:10.3280/SO2020-001004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content