Click here to download

Complex cognitive processes and aggression
Journal Title: RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA  
Author/s: Tindara Caprì, Rosa Angela Fabio 
Year:  2020 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  34 Pg. 713-746 FullText PDF:  352 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2020-002012
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Literature shows existence of cognitive, emotional and genetic factors that in-fluence aggression. While many researches focuses their attention on social cog-nitive processes, the aim of the present study is to examine relationships between complex cognitive processes and aggressive behaviour. We investigated the rela-tionship between complex cognitive processes and aggressive behavior in 236 primary school children. We hypothesized that subjects with aggressive behav-iour show critical thinking and problem solving skills lower than control group. Participants were initially 121 males and 115 females, aged between 10 and 11 years. This study had two phases. In the first, three self report scales and a peer scale were administered, testing aggressive behavior, self-efficacy and moral dis-engagement; further, two scales were administered to teachers, analysing chil-dren’s aggressive behaviour, inattention and hyperactivity. In the second phase, 31 children were selected and divided into two groups (aggressive vs control). Critical thinking and problem solving skills were tested by five instruments. Results show interesting relationship between aggressive behaviours and dimensions analysed and they reveal significant differences between subjects with aggressive behaviour and control group in the critical thinking only, not in problem solving skills. The results were discussed in light of Social Information Processing theory, according to which social and cognitive skills play a key role in influencing ag-gressive behavior.
Keywords: Complex cognitive processes, aggression, cognition, critical thinking, problem solving.

  1. Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human Aggression. Annual review of psychology, 53, 27-51.
  2. Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (2001). Varieties of childhood bullying: Values, emotion processes, and social competence. Social Development, 10, 59-73., DOI: 10.1111/1467-9507.0014
  3. Baker, M.O. (2005). Critical thinking Primary Test. Fonte: www.testingthinking.com.
  4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall.
  5. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W.M. Kurtines, J.L. Gewitz (eds), Handbook of moral behavior and development, 1, Theory. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.
  6. Bandura, A. (1996). Teoria socialcognitiva del pensiero e dell’azione morale. Rassegna di Psicologia, (1), 13, 23-92.
  7. Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 193-209
  8. Bandura, A. (2002). Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Moral Education, 31, 101-119., DOI: 10.1080/0305724022014322
  9. Bandura, A., Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71,364-374., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.2.364
  10. Bentley, K.M., & Li. A.K.F. (1995). Bully and victim problems in elementary schools and students’ beliefs about aggression. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 11, 153-165., DOI: 10.1177/08295735960110022
  11. Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, Consequences, and Control. New York; McGraw-Hill.
  12. Bierman, K.L. (2004). Peer rejection: Developmental processes and intervention strategies. New York: Guilford Press.
  13. Blair, A.J. (1987). Recent Development in Critical Thinking in Anglophone North America. Thinking 7, 2, 2-6.
  14. Boldizar, J.P., Perry, D.G., & Perry L.C. (1989). Outcome value and aggression. Child Development, 60, 571-579., DOI: 10.2307/1130723
  15. Bosworth, K., Espelage, D.L., & Simon, T.R. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 341-362., DOI: 10.1177/0272431699019003003
  16. Broidy, L.M., Nagin, D.S., Tremblay, R.E., Brame, B., Dodge, K., Fergusson, D., Horwood, J., Loeber, R., Laird, R., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T., Bates, J.E., Pettit, G.S., & Vitaro, F. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: a six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222-245., DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.39.2.222
  17. Buss, A. H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. New York, Wiley.
  18. Capodieci, A. (2017). The use of rating scales for the identification of ADHD: A comparison between criteria of intensity, cut-offs, and number of symptoms. Psicologia clinica e dello sviluppo., DOI: 10.1449/87538
  19. Capodieci, A., Lachina, S., & Cornoldi, C. (2018), Handwriting difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research of Developmental Disabilities, 74; 41-49.
  20. Caprara, G.V. (2001). La valutazione dell’autoefficacia. Interventi e contesti culturali. Trento, Erickson.
  21. Caprara, G.V., Pastorelli C., Barbaranelli C., & Vallone R. (1991). Indicatori della capacità di adattamento sociale in età evolutiva. Firenze, Organizzazioni Speciali.
  22. Caprara, G.V., & Pastorelli, C. (1993). Relazioni tra coetanei. La nomina dei pari come predittore delle forme di adattamento e disadattamento nella prima adolescenza. Età Evolutiva, 44, 86-93.
  23. Caprara, G.V., Pastorelli, C.E, & Bandura A. (1995). La misura del disimpegno morale in età evolutiva. Età Evolutiva, 51, 18-29.
  24. Caprara, G.V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (1998). Impact of adolescents’ perceived self-regulatory efficacy on familiar communication and antisocial conduct. European Psychologist, 3, 125-132., DOI: 10.1027//1016-9040.3.2.125
  25. Caprara, G.V., Regalia, C., & Bandura, A. (2002). Longitudinal impact of perceived self-regulatory efficacy on violent conduct. European Psychologist, 7, 63-69., DOI: 10.1027//1016-9040.7.1.63
  26. Caprì, T., Gugliandolo, M. C., Iannizzotto, G., Nucita, A., & Fabio, R.A. (2019). The influence of media usage on family functioning. Current Psychology, 1(23), 1-10. DOI 10.1007/s12144-019-00204-1.
  27. Caravita, S., & Fabio, R.A. (2006). Il DDAI come fattore di rischio dei comportamenti prevaricanti in classe: uno studio pilota. Difficoltà di Apprendimento, 11, 3, 9-25.
  28. Coie, J.D., Dodge, K.A., Terry, R., & Wright, V. (1991). The role of aggression in peer relations: An analysis of aggression episodes in boys’ play groups. Child Development, 62, 812-826.
  29. Côté, S.M., Vaillancourt, T., Barker, E.D., Nagin, D.S., & Tremblay R.E. (2007). The joint development of physical and indirect aggression: Predictors of continuity and change during childhood. Developmental Psychopathology, 19, 1, 37-55., DOI: 10.1017/S0954579407070034
  30. Côté, S., Vaillancourt, T., Leblanc, J.C., Nagin, D.S., & Tremblay, R.E. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 1, 68-82.
  31. Crick, N.R. (1995). Relational aggression: The role of intent attributions, feelings of distress, and provocation type. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 313-322., DOI: 10.1017/S0954579400006520
  32. Crick, N.R., & Dodge K.A. (1996). Social-information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 993-1002., DOI: 10.2307/1131875
  33. Crick, N.R., & Dodge, K.A. (1994). A review and reformulation of socialinformation-processing mechanism in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 1, 74-101., DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74
  34. Crick, N.R., & Ladd G.W. (1990). Children’s perception of the outcomes of aggressive strategies: Do the ends justify being mean? Developmental Psychology, 26, 612-620., DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.26.4.612
  35. Crick N.R, & Nelson D.A. (1999). Rose colored glasses: examining the social information processing of prosocial young adolescents. Journal of early adolescence, 19, 17-38., DOI: 10.1177/0272431699019001002
  36. De Castro, B.O., Veerman, J.W., Koops, W., Bosch, J.D., & Monshouwer, J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: a meta-analysis. Child Development, 73, 916-934., DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00447
  37. Di Norcia, A. (2003). Le determinanti cognitive del comportamento sociale. Studi empirici con il modello Social information processing di Dodge. Università degli studi La Sapienza, Roma.
  38. Dodge, K.A. (1986). A social information processing model of social competence in children. In M. Perlmutter (ed.). Minnesota symposium on child psychology (18). Hillsdale NJ, Erlbaum.
  39. Dodge, K.A. (2006). Translational science in action: hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 791-814., DOI: 10.1017/S0954579406060391
  40. Dodge, K.A. (2003). Do social information-processing patterns mediate aggressive behavior? In B.B. Lahey, T.E. Moffitt, A. Caspi (Eds.). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 254-274.
  41. Dodge, K.A., Bates, J.E., & Pettit G.S. (1990). Mechanism in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678-1679.
  42. Dodge, K., Coie J., & Lynam D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Series Eds.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.). Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed.), New York: Wiley, pp. 719-788.
  43. Dodge, K.A., & Pettit G.S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 349., DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.2.349
  44. Dodge, K.A., Pettit G.S., & Bates J.E. (1994). Socialization mediators of the relation between socio-economic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65, 649-665., DOI: 10.2307/1131407
  45. Dodge, K.A., Pettit, G.S., Bates, J.E., & Valente, E. (1995). Social information processing patterns partially mediate the effect of early physical abuse on later conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 632-643.
  46. Dodge, K.A., & Newman, J.P. (1981). Biased decision making processes in aggressive boys. Journal of abnormal psychology, 90, 375-379., DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.90.4.375
  47. Dodge, K.A., & Tomlin A.M. (1987). Utilization of self-schemas as a mechanism of interpretational bias in aggressive children. Social Cognition, 5, 3, 280-300.
  48. Ennis, R.H. (2002). An Outline of Goals for a Critical Thinking Curriculum and Its Assessment. University of Illinois, UC.
  49. Fabio, R.A. (2017). The study of automatic and controlled processes in ADHD: A reread and a new proposal. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 5, 1-8., DOI: 10.6092/2282-1619/2017.5.1507
  50. Fabio R.A. & Caprì, T. (2015). Autobiographical memory in ADHD subtypes. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 40(1), 26-36., DOI: 10.3109/13668250.2014.983057
  51. Fabio, R.A., & Caprì, T. (2017). The executive functions in a sample of Italian adults with ADHD: Attention, response inhibition and planning/organization. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 5(3), 1-17., DOI: 10.6092/2282-1619/2017.5.1636
  52. Fabio, R.A., Caprì, T., Nucita, A., Iannizzotto, G., & Mohammadhasani, N. (2018). Eye gaze digital games to improve motivational and attentional ability in Rett syndrome. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 19(3-4), 105-126.
  53. Fabio, R.A., Caprì, T., Mohammadhasani, N., Gangemi, A., Gagliano, A., & Martino, G. (2018). Frequency bands in seeing and remembering: comparing ADHD and typically developing children. Neuropsychological Trends, 24, 97-116.
  54. Fabio, R.A., Castriciano, C., & Rondanini, A. (2015). ADHD: Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Automatic and Controlled Processes. Journal of Attention Disorders, 19(9), 771-778., DOI: 10.1177/1087054712459562
  55. Fabio, R.A. & Urso, M. (2014). The analysis of Attention Network in ADHD, attention problems and typically developing subjects. Life Span and Disability, 17(2), 199-221.
  56. Fabio, R. A., & Towey, G. E. (2018). Long-term meditation: The relationship between cognitive processes, thinking styles and mindfulness. Cognitive Processing, 19(1), 73-85.
  57. Facione, P.A., & Facione, N.C. (2001). California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: CCTDI Inventory Manual. Millbrae, CA, California Academic Press.
  58. Fagiani, M.B., & Ramaglia, G. (2006). L’aggressività in età evolutiva. Roma: Carocci.
  59. Feshbach S. (1970). Aggression. In P. Mussen (ed.),.Carmichaelʼs manual of child psychology. New York: Wiley, pp. 159-259.
  60. Filippello P. (2003). I comportamenti aggressivi. Le strategie di intervento. Roma, Carocci.
  61. Fontaine, R.G. (2008). On-line social decision making and antisocial behavior: some essential but neglected issues. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(1), 17.
  62. Fontaine, R.G., Salzer Burks, V., & Dodge K.A. (2002). Response decision processes and externalising behavior problems in adolescents. Development and psychopathology, 14, 107-122.
  63. Fonzi A. (1997). Il bullismo in Italia. Firenze, Giunti.
  64. Fraser, M.W., Galinsky M.J., Smokowski P.R., Day S.H., Terzian M.A., & Rose R.A., Guo S. (2005) Social Information-Processing Skills Training to Promote Social Competence and Prevent Aggressive Behavior in the Third Grade. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 6, 1045-1055., DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1045
  65. Geen, R.G. (2001). Human Aggression. Taylor & Francis. 2nd ed.
  66. Gendreau, P.L., & Archer J. (2005). Subtypes of aggression in humans and animals. In R.E. Tremblay, W.W. Hartup, J. Archer (Eds.). Developmental Origins of Aggression. New York, Guilford, pp. 25-46.
  67. Gerbino, M., Pastorelli, C., Vecchio, G.M., & Paciello, M., & Picconi L. (2002). I determinanti interpersonali e socio-cognitivi dei ragazzi marginalmente aggressivi. Età Evolutiva, 73, 63-69.
  68. Gifford-Smith, M.E., & Rabiner D.L. (2004). Social information processing and children’s social adjustment. In J. B. Kupersmidt & K. A.Dodge (Eds.), Children’s peer relations. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, pp. 61-79., DOI: 10.1037/10653-004
  69. Gilbert, F., Daffern, M., Talevski, D., & Ogloff, J. R. P. (2013). The Role of Aggression-Related Cognition in the Aggressive Behavior of Offenders: A General Aggression Model Perspective. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(2), 119-138., DOI: 10.1177/0093854812467943
  70. Goldstein, A., & Glick B. (1990). Stop all’aggressività. Trento, Erikson.
  71. Green, V.A., Cillessen, A.H.N., Rechis, R., Patterson, M.M., & Hughes J.M. (2008). Social Problem Solving and Strategy Use in Young Children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169, 1, 92-112., DOI: 10.3200/GNTP.169.1.92-112
  72. Hanish, L.D., Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Spinrad, T.L., Ryan P., & Schmidt S. (2004). The expression and regulation of negative emotions: risk factors for young children’s peer victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 335-353., DOI: 10.1017/S0954579404044542
  73. Hanish, L.D., & Guerra N.G. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of patterns of adjustment following peer victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 69-89.
  74. Horsley, T.A., de Castro B.O., & Van Der Schoot M. (2010). In the Eye of the Beholder: Eye-tracking Assessment of Social Information Processing in Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 587-599.
  75. Hubbard, J.A., McAuliffe, M.D., Morrow, M.T., & Romano L.J. (2010). Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood and Adolescence: Precursors, Outcomes, Processes, Experiences, and Measurement. Journal of Personality, 78, 1, 95-118.
  76. Hubbard, J.A., Dodge, K.A., Cillessen, A.H.N., Coie, J.D.E., & Schwartz, D. (2001). The dyadic nature of social information processing in boys’ reactive and proactive aggression. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80, 2, 268-280., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.2.26
  77. Huesmann, L.R., & Eron L.D. (1989). Individual differences and the trait of aggression. European Journal of Personality, 3, 95-106.
  78. Huit,t W. (1998). Critical Thinking: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
  79. Hyde, L.W., Shaw, D.S., & Moilanen, K.S. (2010). Developmental precursors of moral disengagement and the role of moral disengagement in the development of antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(2), 197-209.
  80. Hymel, S., Rocke-Henderson, N., & Bonanno, R.A. (2005). Moral disengagement: A framework for understanding bullying among adolescents. Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 1-11., DOI: 10.1080/00405841.2014.947219
  81. Jagers, R.J., Sydnor, K., Mouttapa, M., & Flay, B.R. (2007). Protective Factors Associated with Preadolescent Violence: Preliminary Work on a Cultural Model. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40 (1-2), 138-145.
  82. Jester, J.M., Nigg, J.T., Adams, K., Fitzgerald, H.E., Puttler, L.I., & Wong M.M., Zucker, R.A. (2005). Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 99-125.
  83. Larcan, R., Filippello, P., & Cuzzocrea, F. (2000). Attribuzione di responsabilità e problem-solving sociale in soggetti aggressivi. Ciclo Evolutivo e Disabilità, 3, 1, 57-75.
  84. Lahey, B., & Loeber, R. (1994). Framework for a developmental model of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In D. Ruth (ed.), Disruptive behavior disorders in child hood. New York, Plenum Press., DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-1501-6_
  85. Lawrence, J.A., & Dodds, A.E. (1999). Duncker’s account of productive thinking: Exegesis and application of a problem solving theory. From Past to Future: Clark Papers on the History of Psychology, 1(2), 29-44.
  86. Lemerise, E.A., & Arsenio, W.F. (2000). An integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 71, 107-118., DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00124
  87. Lengua, L.J. (2003). Associations among emotionality, self-regulation, adjustment problems, and positive adjustment in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 595-618.
  88. Lester, F.K. (1980). Research in mathematical problem solving. In R.J. Shumway (ed.), Research in mathematics education. Reston, VA, NCTM, 286-323.
  89. Liben, L., & Bigler, R. (2002). The developmental course of gender differentiation: conceptuality, measuring and evaluating constructs and pathways. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishing. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development.
  90. Liu, J. (2004). Concept analysis: Aggression. Social Science Research Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
  91. Loeber, R., & Hay D.F. (1993). Developmental approaches to aggression and conduct problems. In M. Rutter e D.F. Hay (eds.) Development through life: a handbook for clinicians. Oxford: Blackwell.
  92. Macbrayer, E.K., Milich, R., & Hundley, M. (2003). Attributional Biases in Aggressive Children and Their Mothers. Journal of abnormal psychology, 112(4), 698-708., DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.598
  93. Markel’, A.L. (2018). The Biosocial Bases of Aggressivity and Aggressive Behavior. Neurosciensce and Behaviural Physiology, 48, 251-260.
  94. Martino, G., Caprì, T., Castriciano, C., & Fabio, R.A. (2017). Automatic Deficits can lead to executive deficits in ADHD. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 5(3), 1-32., DOI: 10.6092/2282-1619/2017.5.1669
  95. Marzocchi, G.M., & Cornoldi, C. (2000). Una scala di facile uso per la rilevazione dei comportamenti problematici dei bambini con deficit di attenzione e iperattività. Psicologia clinica dello Sviluppo, 4, 1, 43-62.
  96. Marzocchi, G.M., Oosterlaan, J., De Meo, T., Di Pietro, M., Pezzica, S., Cavolina, P., Sergeant, J.A., & Zuddas, A. (2001). Scala di valutazione dei Comportamenti Dirompenti per insegnanti (SCOD-I): Validazione e standardizzazione di un questionario per la valutazione dei comportamenti dirompenti a scuola. Giornale di Neuropsichiatria dell’Età Evolutiva, 21, 378-393.
  97. Marzocchi, G.M., Re, A.M., & Cornoldi, C. (2010). BIA: Batteria Italiana per l’ADHD [Italian Battery for ADHD]. Trento, Italy.
  98. Masala, C., Preti, A., & Petretto, D.R. (2002). L’aggressività: psicologia e metodi di valutazione. Roma: Carocci.
  99. McAuliffe, M.D., Hubbard, J.A., Rubin, R.M., Morrow, M.T., & Dearing, K.F. (2006). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Stability of Constructs and Relations to Correlates. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 167, 4, 365-382, DOI: 10.3200/GNTP.167.4.365-382
  100. Menesini, E., Sanchez, V., Fonzi, A., Ortega, R., Costabile, A., & Lo Feudo, G. (2003). Moral emotions and bullying: A cross-national comparison of differences between bullies, victims and outsiders. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 515-530.
  101. Menesini, E., & Smorti, A. (1994). Rifiuto sociale e modalità di Pensiero. Età evolutiva, 48, 85-89.
  102. Miller, J.D., & Lynam, D.R. (2006). Reactive and proactive aggression: Similarities and differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1469-1480.
  103. Miller-Johnson, S., Coie, J.D., Maumary-Gremaud, A., & Bierman, K. (2002). Peer rejection and aggression and early starter models of conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 217-230.
  104. Mohammadhasani, N., Fardanesh, H., Hatami, J., Mozayani, N., & Fabio, R.A. (2018). The pedagogical agent enhances mathematics learning in ADHD students. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2299-2308.
  105. Nagin D., Tremblay R.E. (1999). Trajectories of boysʼ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 5, 1181-1196., DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00086
  106. Nasby, W., Hayden, B., & De Paulo, B.M. (1979). Attributional bias among aggressive boys to interpret unambiguous social stimuli as displays of hostility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 459-468.
  107. Nelson, D., & Crick, N. R. (1999). Rose-colored glasses: Examining the social information processing of prosocial young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 17-38., DOI: 10.1177/0272431699019001002
  108. Nijmeijer, J.S., Minderaa, R.B., Buitelaar, J.K., Mulligan, A., Hartman, C.A., & Hoekstra, P.J. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 692-708.
  109. Orue, I., Calvete, E., & Fernández-González, L. (2019). Early Maladaptive Schemas and Social Information Processing in Child-to-Parent Aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence., DOI: 10.1177/0886260519831395
  110. Pakaslahti, L. (2000). Childrenʼs and adolescents’ aggressive behavior in context: The development and application of aggressive problem-solving strategies. Aggressive and Violent Behavior, 5, 467-490., DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(98)00032-9
  111. Pastorelli, C. (1994). Valutazione dei pari. In S. Bonino (ed.), Dizionario di psicologia dello sviluppo. Torino: Einaudi.
  112. Pastorelli, C., & Picconi L. (2001), Autoefficacia scolastica, sociale e regolatoria. In G.V. Caprara (ed.). La valutazione dell’autoefficacia. Trento: Erikson.
  113. Paul, R., & Scriven, M. (1995). Defining Critical Thinking.
  114. Perry, D.G., Perry, L.C., Weiss, R.J. (1989). Sex differences in the consequences that children anticipate for aggression. Developmental Psychology, 25, 312-319., DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.25.2.312
  115. Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). The role of proactive and reactive aggression in the formation and development of boysʼ friendships. Developmental Psychology, 12 (2), 115-122., DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.36.2.233
  116. Price, J.M., & Dodge, K.A. (1989). Reactive e proactive aggression in childhood: Relation to peer status and social context dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 455-471., DOI: 10.1007/BF0091503
  117. Ramirez, J.M., & Andreu, J.M. (2006), Aggression, and some related psychological constructs (anger, hostility, and impulsivity). Some comments from a research project. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(3), 276-291.
  118. Re, A.M., Mirandola, C., Esposito, S.S., & Capodieci, A. (2014). Spelling errors among children with ADHD symptoms: The role of working memory. Research in Developmental Disability, 35(9), 2199-2204.
  119. Reid, J.B., Patterson, G.R., & Snyder J. (2002). Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association., DOI: 10.1037/10468-00
  120. Tedeschi, J.T., & Felson, R.B. (1994). Violence, Aggression, & Coercive Actions. Washington DC, American Psychological Association., DOI: 10.1037/10160-00
  121. Teng, Z., Nie, Q., Guo, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, Y., & Bushman, B. J. (2019). A longitudinal study of link between exposure to violent video games and aggression in Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of moral disengagement. Developmental Psychology, 55(1), 184-195.
  122. Tremblay, R.E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: what have we learned in the past century?. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 2, 129-141., DOI: 10.1080/016502500383232
  123. Tremblay, R.E., & Nagin, D.S. (2005). The Developmental Origins of Physical Aggression in Humans. In R.E. Tremblay, W.W. Hartup, J. Archer (eds.), Developmental origins of aggression. New York, NY, Guilford Press, pp. 84-106.
  124. Tremblay, R.E., Nagin, D.S., Séguin, J.R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P.D., Boivin, M., Pérusse, D., & Japel, C. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114, 43-50.
  125. Vaillancourt, T., Miller, J.L., Fagbemi, J., Cote, S., & Tremblay, R.E. (2007). Trajectories and Predictors of Indirect Aggression: Results From a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study of Canadian Children Aged 2-10. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 314-326.
  126. Vaughn, B.E., & Santos, A.J. (2007). An evolutionary/ecological account of aggressive behavior and trait aggression in human children and adolescents. In P.H. Hawley, T.D. Little, P.C. Rodkin (Eds.). Aggression and adaptation: The bright side to bad behavior. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, pp. 31-63.
  127. Yoon, J., Hughes, J., Gaur, A., & Thompson, B. (1999). Social Cognition in Aggressive Children: A Metaanalytic Review. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 6, 320-331., DOI: 10.1016/S1077-7229(99)80051-0

Tindara Caprì, Rosa Angela Fabio, Complex cognitive processes and aggression in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 2/2020, pp. 713-746, DOI:10.3280/RIP2020-002012

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content