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Less Dualisation, More Segmentation: France’s Labour Market Model in the Early 21st Century
Journal Title: SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO  
Author/s: Daniel Clegg 
Year:  2021 Issue: 159 Language: French 
Pages:  21 Pg. 50-70 FullText PDF:  244 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SL2021-159003
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La Francia è stata spesso intesa, insieme alla Germania, come un caso paradigmatico di dualizzazione, con le scelte degli attori politici orientate alla competitività che guida la restrizione graduale delle protezioni sociali e occupazionali nei confronti degli outsiders. Questo articolo valuta questa interpretazione alla luce degli sviluppi del diritto del lavoro e della politica sociale francese dall’inizio del 21° secolo. In questo periodo la segmentazione è rimasta un grave problema sul mercato del lavoro francese. Anche se la crescita della quota di occupazione atipica è diminuita nel nuovo millennio, il lavoro temporaneo è diventato su una serie di indicatori più instabile e precario, e i tassi di transizione tra contratti a tempo determinato e contratti a tempo indeterminato sono rimasti estremamente bassi. Questo articolo sostiene tuttavia che nel corso del periodo né i cambiamenti istituzionali nelle politiche sociali e occupazionali né le loro dinamiche socio-politiche di fondo sono coerenti con il tradizionale modello della dualizzazione. Esso dimostra che lo smantellamento delle protezioni dell’occupazione ha avuto un impatto maggiore sui lavoratori del nucleo centrale rispetto a quelli periferici, e che il sistema di assicurazione contro la disoccupazione è diventato considerevolmente più inclusivo dei lavoratori con biografie occupazionali discontinue. Dato che l’autonomia normativa delle parti sociali - sindacati e associazioni dei datori di lavoro - è rimasta elevata nel sistema di assicurazione contro la disoccupazione fino a poco tempo fa, la direzione orientata verso l’esterno di molte recenti riforme istituzionali in questo campo mette in particolare dubbio la nozione di una coalizione trasversale di classe a favore della dualizzazione in Francia. Si sostiene invece che in un contesto in cui la riforma fondamentale del mercato del lavoro rimane una fonte di profondo conflitto, gli attori sociali e politici francesi si sono coalizzati su una strategia di secondo piano per sovvenzionare la precarietà degli emarginati, anche attraverso il sistema di assicurazione sociale. Questo aiuta a spiegare perché la segmentazione rimane così radicata in Francia, ma anche perché la Francia non ha visto i forti aumenti della povertà in età lavorativa che sono associati alla dualizzazione altrove.
Keywords: Labour market, dualisation, France

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Daniel Clegg, in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO " 159/2021, pp. 50-70, DOI:10.3280/SL2021-159003

   

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