Clicca qui per scaricare

La dipendenza da cocaina: verso un’integrazione delle cure
Titolo Rivista: PNEI REVIEW 
Autori/Curatori: Doris Radolovic 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2021 Fascicolo: 1  Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  13 P. 85-97 Dimensione file:  1083 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PNEI2021-001004
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Le ricerche scientifiche hanno dimostrato che la dipendenza da sostanze è una patologia cronica recidivante ad eziologia multifattoriale, prodotta dall’interconnessione tra la dimensione biologica, psicologica e quella ambientale. La cocaina è la seconda droga illecita più comunemente utilizzata in Europa. Il suo consumo si impone ormai come uno tra i più gravi problemi sociali che gli operatori dei diversi settori si trovano ad affrontare. Comprendere come i diversi fattori coinvolti concorrono a determinare la vulnerabilità all’uso problematico di cocaina rappresenta l’aspetto fondamentale per i futuri progetti di prevenzione e di trattamento di tale patologia. L’integrazione delle cure in questo ambito sembra destinato non solo a modificare l’efficacia del trattamento, ma anche ad aprire nuovi orizzonti di ricerca per quanto riguarda la sua origine e la natura del rapporto che lega funzionalmente tra loro l’aspetto biologico, psicologico e socio-ambientale. Vengono infine esposti alcuni possibili approcci terapeutici nell’ambito della dipendenza da cocaina.


Keywords: Dipendenza, Cocaina, Pnei, Vulnerabilità, Terapie integrate, Multidisciplinarietà.

  1. Belin D., & Deroche-Gamonet V. (2012). Responses to Novelty and Vulnerability to Cocaine Addiction: Contribution of a Multi-Symptomatic Animal Model. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(11), a011940–a011940. -- https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a011940
  2. Belin D., Berson N., Balado E., Piazza P.V., & Deroche-Gamonet V. (2011). High-Novelty-Preference Rats are Predisposed to Compulsive Cocaine Self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(3), 569–579. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.188
  3. Carroll K.M., & Onken L.S. (2005). Behavioral Therapies for Drug Abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(8), 1452–1460. -- https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.8.1452
  4. Dackis C.A., Kampman K.M., Lynch K.G., Pettinati H.M., & O’Brien C.P. (2005). A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Modafi nil for Cocaine Dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(1), 205–211. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300600
  5. Danese A., & Lewis S.J. (2017). Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma? Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(1), 99–114. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2016.198
  6. De Crescenzo F., Ciabattini M., D’Alò G.L., De Giorgi R., Del Giovane C., Cassar C., Janiri L., Clark N., Ostacher M.J., & Cipriani A. (2018). Comparative effi cacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions for individuals with cocaine and amphetamine addiction: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine, 15(12), e1002715. -- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002715
  7. Diana M., Raij T., Melis M., Nummenmaa A., Leggio L., & Bonci A. (2017). Rehabilitating the addicted brain with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 18(11), 685–693. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.113
  8. DiNieri J.A., Nemeth C.L., Parsegian A., Carle T., Gurevich V.V., Gurevich E., Neve R.L., Nestler E.J., & Carlezon W.A. (2009). Altered Sensitivity to Rewarding and Aver sive Drugs in Mice with Inducible Disruption of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Function within the Nucleus Accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(6), 1855–1859. -- https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5104-08.2009
  9. Dube S.R., Felitti V.J., Dong M., Chapman D.P., Giles W.H., & Anda R.F. (2003). Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction and the Risk of Illicit Drug Use: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. PEDIATRICS, 111(3), 564–572. -- https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.111.3.564
  10. Ersche K.D., Turton A.J., Chamberlain S.R., Müller U., Bullmore E.T., & Robbins T.W. (2012). Cognitive Dysfunction and Anxious-Impulsive Personality Traits Are Endophenotypes for Drug Dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(9), 926–936. -- https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11091421
  11. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2020). European Drug Report 2020: trends and developments. LU: Publications Offi ce. -- https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2810/420678 retrieved 2021-04-01
  12. Gerra G., Leonardi C., Cortese E., Zaimovic A., Dell’Agnello G., Manfredini M., Somaini L., Petracca F., Caretti V., Raggi M.A., & Donnini C. (2009). Childhood neglect and parental care perception in cocaine addicts: Relation with psychiatric symptoms and biological correlates. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(4), 601–610. -- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.08.002
  13. Gerra G., Leonardi C., Cortese E., Zaimovic A., Dell’Agnello G., Manfredini M., Somaini L., Petracca F., Caretti V., Baroni C., & Donnini C. (2008). Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels directly correlate with childhood neglect and depression measures in addicted patients. Addiction Biology, 13(1), 95–104. -- https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2007.00086.x
  14. Grabowski J., Rhoades H., Schmitz J., Stotts A., Daruzska L.A., Creson D., & Moeller F.G. (2001). Dextroamphetamine for Cocaine-Dependence Treatment: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21(5), 522–526. -- https://doi.org/10.1097/00004714-200110000-00010
  15. Jennings J.H., Sparta D.R., Stamatakis A.M., Ung R.L., Pleil K.E., Kash T.L., & Stuber G.D. (2013). Distinct extended amygdala circuits for divergent motivational states. Nature, 496(7444), 224–228. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12041
  16. Kampman K.M. (2019). The treatment of cocaine use disorder. Science Advances, 5(10), eaax1532. -- https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax1532
  17. Kendler K.S., Myers J., & Prescott C.A. (2007). Specifi city of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Symptoms of Cannabis, Cocaine, Alcohol, Caffeine, and Nicotine Dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(11), 1313. -- https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.11.1313
  18. Koob G.F., & Moal M.L. (1997). Drug Abuse: Hedonic Homeostatic Dysregulation. Science, 278(5335), 52–58. -- https://doi.org/10.1126/science.278.5335.52
  19. Koob G.F., & Volkow N.D. (2016). Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(8), 760–773. -- https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00104-8
  20. Lo Iacono L., Catale C., Martini A., Valzania A., Viscomi M.T., Chiurchiù V., Guatteo E., Bussone S., Perrone F., Di Sabato P., Aricò E., D’Argenio A., Troisi A., Mercuri N.B., Maccarrone M., Puglisi-Allegra S., Casella P., & Carola V. (2018). From Traumatic Childhoodto Cocaine Abuse: The Critical Function of the Immune System. Biological Psychiatry, 84(12), 905–916. -- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.05.022
  21. Morrow J.D., & Flagel S.B. (2016). Neuroscience of resilience and vulnerability for addiction medicine. In: Progress in Brain Research (Vol. 223, pp. 3–18). Edinburgh: Elsevier.
  22. Northcutt A.L., Hutchinson M.R., Wang X., Baratta M.V., Hiranita T., Cochran T.A., Pomrenze M.B., Galer E.L., Kopajtic T.A., Li C.M., Amat J., Larson G., Cooper D.C., Huang Y., O’Neill C.E., Yin H., Zahniser N.R., Katz J.L., Rice K.C., Maier S.F., Bachtell R.K., & Watkins L.R. (2015). DAT isn’t all that: cocaine reward and reinforcement require Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Molecular Psychiatry, 20(12), 1525–1537. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2014.177
  23. Olivares E.L., Kendler K.S., Neale M.C., & Gillespie N.A. (2016). The Genetic and Environmental Association Between Parental Monitoring and Risk of Cannabis, Stimulants, and Cocaine Initiation in a Sample of Male Twins: Does Parenting Matter? Twin Research and Human Genetics, 19(4), 297–305. -- https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2016.52
  24. Pierce R.C., Fant B., Swinford-Jackson S.E., Heller E.A., Berrettini W.H., & Wimmer M.E. (2018). Environmental, genetic and epigenetic contributions to cocaine addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 43(7), 1471–1480. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-018-0008-x
  25. Rachid F. (2018). Neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of cocaine dependence: A review of the literature. Addictive Behaviors, 76, 145–155. -- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.004
  26. Riezzo I., Fiore C., De Carlo D., Pascale N., Neri M., Turillazzi E., & Fineschi V. (2012). Side Effects of Cocaine Abuse: Multiorgan Toxicity and Pathological Consequences. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 19(33), 5624–5646. -- https://doi.org/10.2174/092986712803988893
  27. Robison A.J., & Nestler E.J. (2011). Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(11), 623–637. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3111
  28. Shea A., Walsh C., MacMillan H., & Steiner M. (2005). Child maltreatment and HPA axis dysregulation: relationship to major depressive disorder and post traumatic stress disorder in females. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(2), 162–178. -- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.07.001
  29. Strafella A.P., Paus T., Barrett J., & Dagher A. (2001). Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Human Prefrontal Cortex Induces Dopamine Release in the Caudate Nucleus. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21(15), RC157–RC157. -- https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-15-j0003.2001
  30. Van der Kolk B.A. (2008). Il disturbo traumatico dello sviluppo: verso una diagnosi razionale per bambini cronicamente traumatizzati. In: V. Caretti & G. Craparo (Eds.), Trauma e psicopatologia: un approcio evolutivo-relazionale. Roma: Astrolabio.
  31. Volkow N D, Fowler J.S., Wang G.-J., & Swanson J.M. (2004). Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results from imaging studies and treatment implications. Molecular Psychiatry, 9(6), 557–569. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001507
  32. Volkow Nora D., Koob G.F., & McLellan A.T. (2016). Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(4), 363–371. -- https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1511480
  33. White S.L., Vassoler F.M., Schmidt H.D., Pierce R.C., & Wimmer M.E. (2016). Enhanced anxiety in the male offspring of sires that self-administered cocaine: Anxiety in cocaine-sired rats. Addiction Biology, 21(4), 802–810. -- https://doi.org/10.1111/adb.12258
  34. Wimmer M.E., Briand L.A., Fant B., Guercio L.A., Arreola A.C., Schmidt H.D., Sidoli S., Han Y., Garcia B.A., & Pierce R.C. (2017). Paternal cocaine taking elicits epigenetic remodeling and memory defi cits in male progeny. Molecular Psychiatry, 22(11), 1641–1650. -- https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.8
  35. Yamada K., & Nabeshima T. (2004). Pro- and Anti-Addictive Neurotrophic Factors and Cytokines in Psychostimulant Addiction: Mini Review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1025(1), 198–204. -- https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1316.025
  36. Zuckermann M. (1988). Sensation seeking, risk taking and health. In: M. P. Janisse (Ed.), Individual Differences, Stress, and Health Psychology. New York, NY: Springer.

Doris Radolovic, in "PNEI REVIEW" 1/2021, pp. 85-97, DOI:10.3280/PNEI2021-001004

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche