Click here to download

Non-consensual pornography and victim blaming. The role and responsibility of society
Journal Title: PSICOBIETTIVO 
Author/s: Matteo G.P. Flora, Edel Margherita Beckman 
Year:  2021 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  14 Pg. 111-124 FullText PDF:  147 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PSOB2021-002007
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The boundary that separates real life from virtual life depends mainly on how much one can influence the other. In fact, the more the two dimensions influence each other, one becoming the longa manus of the other, the more difficult it will be to keep them separate. As always and is now more evident, what happens online also has off-line consequences for individuals. Among the various crimes that can be committed online there is also Non-Consensual Pornography (or Non-Consensual Pornography), one of the worst forms of sexual exploitation and violation of privacy (as well as intimacy) perpetrated online, with consequences that also extend off-line, hitting the victim at 360 degrees. The term Non-Consensual Pornography is used by the scientific community to indicate the illegal sharing of sexually explicit images or videos, intended to remain private, without the consent of the person represented, in order to cause harm to the victim. This article lists the main problems identified in over 18 months of constant work in the field of combating Non-Consensual Pornography, addressed in the experience of PermessoNegato APS, a Non-Profit of Social Promotion that offers technological and legal support to the victims, processing not only the statistics of the types of intervention, but also the main psychological consequences of the phenomenon on the victims.
Keywords: Article 612-terC.p.; online shaming; gender-based offence; victim blaming; digital signature; revenge pornography; non-consensual intimate image; consent culture.

  1. Afroditi P., Holland J. (2017) The malevolent side of revenge porn proclivity; dark personality traits and sexist ideology, University of Kent, UK, in -- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313938681_The_Malevolent_Side _of_Revenge_Porn_Proclivity_Dark_Personality_Traits_and_Sexist_Ideology., DOI: 10.4018/IJT.201701010
  2. Bates S. (2015) “Stripped”: An Analysis of Revenge Porn Victims’ Lives after Victimization, in -- http://www.sfu.ca/~palys/SamBatesGuestLecture.pdf
  3. Bates S. (2016) Revenge Porn and Mental Health: A Qualitative Analysis of the Mental Health Effects of Revenge Porn on Female Survivors, in https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1557085116654565. -- https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085116654565
  4. Betsos I.M., Ponti G. (2008) Compendio di Criminologia, Raffaello Cortina, Milano
  5. Boeschen L.E., Koss M.P. (2008) Experiential avoidance and post-traumatic stress disorder, in -- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 261582556_Experiential_Avoidance_and_Post-Traumatic_Stress_Disorder.
  6. Brottsförebyggande rådet (2019) Hate Crime 2018, Report 2019: 13
  7. Caletti G.M. (2018) “Revenge porn” e tutela penale. Prime riflessioni sulla criminalizzazione specifica della pornografia non consensuale alla luce delle esperienze angloamericane, in -- http://dpc-rivista-trimestrale.criminaljusticenetwork.eu/pdf/DPC_Riv_Trim_3_2018_Caletti.pdf
  8. Caletti G.M. (2019) “Revenge porn”. Prime considerazioni in vista dell’introduzione dell’art. 612-ter c.p.: una fattispecie “esemplare”, ma davvero efficace? In -- https://archiviodpc.dirittopenaleuomo.org/d/6648-revenge-porn-prime-considerazioni-in-vista-dell-introduzione-dell-art-612-ter-cp-una-fattispecie-es
  9. Cecil A.L. (2014) Taking Back the Internet: Imposing Civil Liability on Interactive Computer Services in an Attempt to Provide an Adequate Remedy to Victims of Nonconsensual Pornography, 71 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 2513. In -- https://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/wlulr/vol71/iss4/9
  10. Citron D.K., Franks M.A. (2014) Criminalizing revenge porn, Wake Forest Law Review Association, Inc., in -- http://www.academia.edu/34148859/Criminalizing_Revenge_Porn
  11. Coletti F. (2017) Revenge porn: the concept and practice of combatting nonconsensual sexual images in Europe, University of Latvia, European Master’s Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation, in -- https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Revenge-porn%3A-the-concept-and-practice-of-sexual-in-Coletti/891132f514e0b88b6d35b67bebfda21ae13b56f9
  12. Cotelli M. (2019) Pornografia domestica, sexting e revenge porn fra minorenni. Alcune osservazioni dopo la pronuncia delle Sezioni Unite n. 51815/18, in -- http://www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/2019/03/09/pornografia-domestica-sextingrevenge-porn-fra-minorenni-alcune-osservazioni-la-pronuncia-delle-sezioniunite-n-51815-18/
  13. CROSS-TAB (2010) Online Reputation in a Connected World, in -- https://www.jobhunt. org/guides/DPD_Online-Reputation-Research_overview.pdf Cyber Civil Rights Initiative Campain, in -- https://www.cybercivilrights.org/wpcontent/uploads/2014/12/RPStatistics.pdf
  14. Eaton A.A., Jacobs H., Ruvalcaba Y. (2017) Nationwide online study of non-consensual porn victimization and perpetration. A summary report, Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, Inc., Florida International University, Department of Psychology, in -- https://www.cybercivilrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/CCRI-2017-Research-Report.pdf
  15. Faccioli M. (2015), Minori nella rete. Pedofilia, pedopornografia, deep web, social network, sexting, gambling, grooming e cyberbullismo nell’era digitale, Key Editore, Milano
  16. Franklin Z. (2014) “Justice for Revenge Porn Victims: Legal Theories to Overcome Claims of Civil Immunity by Operators of Revenge Porn Websites”, California Law Review, 102(5): 1303-1335
  17. Gordon-Messer D., Bauermeister J.A., Grodzinski A., Zimmerman M. (2012)
  18. “Sexting among young adults”, Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 3: 301-306.
  19. Hall M., Hearn J. (2017) Revenge Pornography: Gender, Sexuality and Motivations, Routledge, London
  20. Henry N., Flynn A., Powell A. (2019) Image-based sexual abuse: Victims and perpetrators. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice no. 572, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra, in -- https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/ tandi/tandi572
  21. Iaccarino A. (2015) “Lo stalking, un reato senza genere”, Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza, IX, 2.
  22. Istituto Europeo per l’Uguaglianza di Genere (2017) Violenza virtuale contro le donne e le ragazze.
  23. McCormack C., Prostran N. (2021) “Asking for it. A first-hand account from slutwalk”, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 14, 3., DOI: 10.1080/14616742.2012.69977
  24. Pina A., Holland J. (2017) The Malevolent Side of Revenge Porn Proclivity: Dark Personality Traits and Sexist Ideology.
  25. Rutger Leukfeldt R., Nott R., Malsch M. (2018) Online crime victimization Needs, consequences and responsibilities following victimization through cybercrime and digital crime, Amesterdam, in -- https://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:f9e9da1b-d2a9-4343-a92d-f4205eba5298/2839_Summary_tcm28-368217.pdf
  26. Sandywell B. (2009) “On the globalisation of crime”, in Jewkes Y., Yar M. (eds.), Handbook of Internet Crime, Routledge, London
  27. Sentenza Corte di Cassazione n. 51815/2018, in -- http://www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/sezioni-unite-51815-2018.pdf
  28. Walley P. (2015) “‘In Memoriam Amore’: Revenge, Sex and Cyberspace”, Journal of the Bar of Ireland, 20, in -- https://www.lawlibrary.ie/rss/barreview/2-2015.pdf
  29. Worren S.D., Brandeis L.D. (1980) “The Right to Privacy”, Harvard Law Review, 4, 5: 193-220
  30. Ziccardi G. (2012) “Cyberstalking e molestie portate con strumenti elettronici: aspetti informatico-giuridici”, Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, VI, 3: 160

Matteo G.P. Flora, Edel Margherita Beckman, Non-consensual pornography and victim blaming. The role and responsibility of society in "PSICOBIETTIVO" 2/2021, pp. 111-124, DOI:10.3280/PSOB2021-002007

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content