Clicca qui per scaricare

Potere datoriale nel mercato del lavoro e rimedi antitrust
Autori/Curatori: Suresh Naidu, Eric A. Posner , Glen Weyl 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2021 Fascicolo: 170  Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  32 P. 257-288 Dimensione file:  339 KB
DOI:  10.3280/GDL2021-170005
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

Ricerche recenti mostrano come il potere datoriale nel mercato del lavoro abbia contribuito ad aumentare le diseguaglianze salariali e la stagnazione economica. Sebbene la legislazione anti-trust impedisca alle imprese di restringere la concorrenza nei mercati del lavoro come nei mer-cati del prodotto, il governo federale statunitense non ha fatto molto per affrontare il problema del mercato del lavoro, e le azioni legali sono state rare e in gran parte infruttuose. Una ragione è che le tecniche di analisi antitrust ideate per valutare il potere datoriale nel mercato del lavoro sono di gran lunga meno evolute rispetto alle regole ideate per stimare il potere (di mercato) nel mercato del prodotto. Per correggere questa asimmetria, il saggio individua una serie di metodi per stimare gli effetti delle concentrazioni nei mercati del lavoro. Gli Autori estendono poi que-sto approccio ad altre condotte anticoncorrenziali realizzate dai datori di lavoro nei confronti dei lavoratori. Da ultimo, il saggio evidenzia alcuni argomenti e prove che indicano come il potere di mercato possa essere addirittura più significativo nei mercati del lavoro che nei mer-cati del prodotto.

Keywords: Potere datoriale; Mercati del lavoro; Monopsonio; Antitrust; Class action; Con-centrazione; Patto di non concorrenza

  1. Currie J., Farsi M., MacLeod W.B. (2005). Cut to the Bone? Hospital Takeovers and Nurse Employment Contracts. ILRR: 471 ss.
  2. Davis S.J., von Wachter T. (2011). Recessions and the Costs of Job Loss. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper n. 17638.
  3. Doering C. (2014). Who Will Food Industry Consolidation Squeeze?. Usa Today, 5.6.2014.
  4. Abrams R. (2017). Why Aren’t Paychecks Growing? A Burger-Joint Clause Offers a Clue. New York Times, 27.9.2017.
  5. Adams W., Brock J.W. (1990). The Sherman Act and the Economic Power Problem. TAB: 25 ss.
  6. Areeda P.E., Hovenkamp H.J. (2016). Antitrust Law: An Analysis of Antitrust Principles and their Application. IV ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
  7. Armstrong A., Vickers J. (2010). A Model of Delegated Project Choice. Econ: 213 ss.
  8. Arrieta Ibarra I., Goff L., Jiménez Hernández D., Lanier J., Weyl G. (2018). Should We Treat Data as Labor? Moving Beyond “Free”. AEA Papers and Proceedings.
  9. Autor D., Dorn D., Katz L.F., Patterson C., Van Reenen J. (2017). The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms. IZA Inst. Labor Econ., Discussion Paper n. 10756.
  10. Azar J., Marinescu I., Steinbaum M.I. (2020). Labor Market Concentration. JHR: 1 ss.
  11. Bourgeois J., O’Daly C. (2010). Hard Times: Employment Issues in EU Merger Control. In: Krasnodębska-Tomkiel M., ed., Changes in Competition Policy over the Last Two Decades. Office of Competition and Consumer Protection, 163 ss.
  12. Bulow J., Levin J. (2006). Matching and Price Competition. AER: 652 ss.
  13. Card D., Krueger A.B. (1994). Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. AER:772 ss.
  14. Crawford G.S., Lee R.S., Whinston M.D., Yurukoglu A. (2017). The Welfare Effects of Vertical Integration in Multichannel Television Markets. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper n. 21832.
  15. Culbertson D. (2018). Demand for AI Talent on the Rise. Indeed Hiring Lab, 1.3.2018.
  16. Dougherty C. (2017a). How Noncompete Clauses Keep Workers Locked In. New York Times, 13.5.2017.
  17. Dougherty C. (2017b). Noncompete Pacts, Under Siege, Find Haven in Idaho. New York Times, 14.7.2017.
  18. Dube A., Kaplan E. (2010). Does Outsourcing Reduce Wages in the Low-Wage Service Occupations? Evidence from Janitors and Guards. ILRR: 287 ss.
  19. Eggertsson G.B., Robbins J.A., Wold E.G. (2018). Kaldor and Piketty’s Facts: The Rise of Monopoly Power in the United States. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper n. 24287.
  20. Etherington D. (2017). Microsoft Acquires Maluuba, a Startup Focused on General Artificial Intelligence. Techcrunch, 13.1.2017.
  21. Farber H.S., Herbst D., Kuziemko I., Naidu S. (2018). Unions and Inequality over the Twentieth Century: New Evidence from Survey Data. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper n. 24587.
  22. Farber H.S., Western B. (2000). Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Decline of Unions in the Private Sector, 1973–1998. Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University, Working Paper n. 437.
  23. Farrell J., Katz M.L. (2006). The Economics of Welfare Standards in Antitrust. CPI: 14 ss.
  24. Gandhi A., Froeb L., Tschantz S., Werden G.J. (2008). Post-Merger Product Repositioning. JIE: 49 ss.
  25. Gaudet G., Van Long N. (1996). Vertical Integration, Foreclosure, and Profits in the Presence of Double Marginalization. JEMS: 409 ss.
  26. Goldschmidt D., Schmieder J.F. (2017). The Rise of Domestic Outsourcing and the Evolution of the German Wage Structure. QJE: 1165 ss.
  27. Grullon G., Larkin Y., Michaely R. (2019). Are U.S. Industries Becoming More Concentrated?. RF: 697 ss.
  28. Hafiz H. (2018). Picketing in the New Economy. CLR: 1845 ss.
  29. Hemphill C.S., Rose N.L. (2018). Mergers that Harm Sellers. YLJ: 2078 ss.
  30. Hovenkamp H.J. (2017). Appraising Merger Efficiencies. GMLR: 703 ss.
  31. Hovenkamp H.J. (2018). Whatever Did Happen to the Antitrust Movement?. NDLR: 583 ss.
  32. Jamieson D. (2014). Jimmy John’s Makes Low-Wage Workers Sign “Oppressive” Noncompete Agreements. Huffington Post, 13.10.2014.
  33. Kang C., (2013). Apple Ordered to Change ‘Most Favored’ E-Book Contracts. Washington Post, 6.9.2013.
  34. Kaplow L. (2013). Market Definition: Impossible and Counterproductive. ALJ: 361 ss.
  35. Katz L.F., Krueger A.B. (2016). The Rise and Nature of Alternative Work Arrangements in the United States, 1995-2015. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper n. 22667.
  36. Kennison M.P., Cernak S.J. (2017). How New Pricing Technology Raises New Antitrust Issues. Law360, 13.4.2017.
  37. Kroh E. (2016). The Firms that Handle the Most Antitrust Litigation. Law360, 15.11.2016.
  38. Krotoski M.L. (2018). DOJ Antitrust Division Announces Imminent Criminal Prosecution for “No Poaching” Agreements. MorganLewis, 6.2.2018.
  39. Krueger A.B., Ashenfelter O. (2017). Theory and Evidence on Employer Collusion in the Franchise Sector. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper n. 24831.
  40. Krueger A.B., Posner E.A. (2018). A Proposal for Protecting Low-Income Workers From Monopsony And Collusion. The Hamilton Project Policy Proposal.
  41. Lindsay M., Santon K. (2012). No Poaching Allowed: Antitrust Issues in Labor Markets. Antitrust, 24.7.2012.
  42. Lobel O. (2013). Talent wants to be free: Why we should learn to love leaks, raids, and free riding. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  43. Lunden I. (2017). Apple Acquires AI Company Lattice Data, a Specialist in Unstructured “Dark Data,” for $200M. Techcrunch, 13.5.2017.
  44. Manning A, Petrongolo B. (2017). How Local Are Labor Markets? Evidence from a Spatial Job Search Model. AER: 2877 ss.
  45. Marinescu I., Hovenkamp H.J. (2019). Anticompetitive Mergers in Labor Markets. IndLJ: 1031 ss.
  46. Marx M., Strumsky D., Fleming L. (2009). Mobility, Skills, and the Michigan Non-Compete Experiment. MS: 875 ss.
  47. Mas A., Pallais A. (2017). Valuing Alternative Work Arrangements. AER: 3722 ss.
  48. Masterman C.J. (2016). The Customer Is Not Always Right: Balancing Worker and Customer Welfare in Antitrust Law. VLR: 1387 ss.
  49. Naidu S., Posner E.A., Weyl G. (2018). Antitrust Remedies for Labor Market Power. HLR: 536 ss.
  50. Ornstein S.I. (1989). Exclusive Dealing and Antitrust. AB: 65 ss.
  51. Prince J.T., Simon D.H. (2017). The Impact of Mergers on Quality Provision: Evidence from the Airline Industry. JIE: 336 ss.
  52. Robinson S. (2004). Antitrust Lawsuit over Medical Residency System Is Dismissed. New York Times, 14.8.2004.
  53. Rowley J.D. (2018). Fiverr’s AND CO Acquisition Continues Freelance Consolidation Trend. Crunchbase News, 24.1.2018.
  54. Schmieder J.F., von Wachter T., Heining J. (2018). The Costs of Job Displacement over the Business Cycle and Its Sources: Evidence from Germany. -- Testo disponibile al sito: (consultato il 20.3.2021).
  55. Schmitt J. (2013). Why Does The Minimum Wage Have No Discernible Effect On Employment?. Washington, DC: Center for Economic and Policy Research. -- Testo disponibile al sito: (consultato il 20.3.2021).
  56. Shu C. (2014). Google Acquires Artificial Intelligence Startup DeepMind for More than $500. Techcrunch, 26.1.2014.
  57. Smith A. (1776). An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The Wealth Of Nations. Oxford: Clarendon Press (ed. 1976).
  58. Starr E., Frake J., Agarwal R. (2019). Mobility Constraint Externalities: How Noncompetes Shackle the Unconstrained. OS: 961 ss.
  59. Starr E., Prescott J.J., Bishara N. (2020). Noncompete Agreements in the U.S. Labor Force. JLE. -- Testo disponibile al sito: (consultato il 20.3.2021).
  60. Tyler E. (2018). Justice Dept. Is Going After “No-Poach” Agreements. Bloomberg BNA, 19.1.2018.
  61. van der Meulen R., Morrison B. (2018). An Update on Anti-Poach Enforcement and Class Actions. Law360, 11.7.2018.
  62. Weber L. (2017). Some of the World’s Largest Employers No Longer Sell Things, They Rent Workers. Wall Street Journal, 28.12.29017.
  63. Weil D. (2017). The Fissured Workplace. III ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  64. Weissmann J. (2013). Disability Insurance: America’s $124 Billion Secret Welfare Program. The Atlantic, 25.3.2013.
  65. Wilmers N. (2018). Wage Stagnation and Buyer Power: How Buyer-Supplier Relations Affect U.S. Workers’ Wages, 1978 to 2014. ASR: 216 ss.

  1. Impossibile comunicare con Crossref: The request was aborted: Could not create SSL/TLS secure channel.

Suresh Naidu, Eric A. Posner , Glen Weyl, in "GIORNALE DI DIRITTO DEL LAVORO E DI RELAZIONI INDUSTRIALI " 170/2021, pp. 257-288, DOI:10.3280/GDL2021-170005


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche