The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between parental involvement and student mathematics achievement using a structural equa¬tion modeling approach. Data from a representative sample of fourth-grade students, and their parents, from 14 different European countries participating in TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) were analyzed. The model was successful in explaining the TIMSS scores in mathematics: the predicted model showed a good fit to the data, with 31% of the variance explained. The results showed that SES contributed to the prediction of performance in mathematics. However, the results showed also the positive and signifi¬cant effects of parental involvement factors - especially parental expectations for their children’s academic attainment - mediating the relationship between SES and TIMSS math achievement. Thus, increasing parental par¬ticipation could be a useful intervention to reduce SES-related differences in performance.
Keywords: parental involvement, TIMSS, mathematics achievement, path model, mediation effects.