Clicca qui per scaricare

L’utilizzo dei Social Media durante la pandemia da COVID-19: un nuovo strumento per la gestione del rischio sanitario?
Titolo Rivista: MANAGEMENT CONTROL 
Autori/Curatori: Silvia Fissi, Francesco Grazzini 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2021 Fascicolo: suppl. 2  Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  24 P. 265-288 Dimensione file:  270 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MACO2021-002-S1012
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 




The public sector uses social media (SM) for the communication and engagement of citizens. The use of social media quickly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The literature review highlights that the analysis concerning SM use in public administration is limited at the level of local authorities. Moreover, the analysis considers only a few foreign countries, with little attention to the Italian case. Consequently, this study aims to analyze the use of social media during the COVID-19 pandemic within the more affected Italian regions. The results highlight that the use of social media is different in the pandemic era. Furthermore, the results also highlight that the above-mentioned Italian regions apply SM to communicate to citizens to manage health risks. At the same time, people tend to interact with institutions more than in the past. Finally, each region uses social media with a different strategy to manage the pandemic and, consequently, to reach citizens.
Keywords: Health risk, Social media, COVID-19, Italian regions, Local authority.

  1. Krewski D., Hogan V., Turner M. C., …, Losos J. (2007), An integrated framework for risk management and population health, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 13, 1288-1312.
  2. Alovisio M., Borciu C. (2017), I social media e le nuove opportunità per una pubblica amministrazione al servizio del cittadino: lo strumento della social media policy, Informatica e Diritto, XXVI(1-2), pp. 293-317.
  3. An B. Y., Tang S.-Y. (2020), Lessons from COVID-19 responses in East Asia: Institutional infrastructure and enduring policy instruments, The American Review of Public Administration, 50(6-7), pp. 790-800.
  4. Ang L. (2011), Community relationship management and social media, Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 18, 1, pp. 31-38.
  5. Antonini M., Berardi C., Paolucci F. (2020), Le regioni in ordine sparso nella lotta al Covid, Quotidiano Sanità, 4 maggio, -- http://www.quotidianosanita.it/studi-e-analisi/articolo.php?articolo_id=84841 (ultimo accesso 14 ottobre 2020).
  6. Barclay K., Carruthers R., Traboulsee A., …, Habek M. (2019), Best practices for long-term monitoring and follow-up of alemtuzumab-treated MS patients in real-world clinical settings, Frontiers in Neurology, 10, p. 253.
  7. Bobini M., Cinelli G., del Vecchio M., Longo F. (2020), Regione e aziende: modelli di coordinamento a confronto, in Cergas (a cura di), Rapporto OASI 2020. Osservatorio sulle aziende e sul sistema sanitario italiano, Milano, Egea, pp. 348-378.
  8. Bonsón E., Torres L., Rayo S., Flores F. (2012), Local e-government 2.0: social media and corporate transparency in municipalities, Government Information Quarterly, 29(12), pp. 123-132.
  9. Borgonovi E. (2020), Crisi Covid-19 come fonte di apprendimento, Mecosan, 113, pp. 5-7.
  10. Brownson R. C., Eyler A. A., Harris J. K., Moore J. B., Tabak R. G. (2018), Getting the word out: new approaches for disseminating public health science, Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 24, pp. 102-111.
  11. Chan A. K. M., Nickson C. P., Rudolph J. W., Lee A., Joynt G. M. (2020), Social media for rapid knowledge dissemination: early experience from the COVID-19 pandemic, Anaesthesia, 75, pp. 1579-1582.
  12. Cinelli G., Gugiatti A., Meda F., Petracca F. (2020), La struttura e le attività del SSN, in Cergas (a cura di), Rapporto OASI 2020. Osservatorio sulle aziende e sul sistema sanitario italiano, Milano, Egea, pp. 35-108.
  13. Comfort L. K., Boin A., Demchak C. C. (Eds.) (2010), Designing resilience: preparing for extreme events. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press.
  14. Comfort L. K., Haase T. W. (2006), Communication, coherence, and collective action: the impact of Hurricane Katrina on communication infrastructure, Public Works Management Policy, 10, pp. 328-343.
  15. Comfort L. K., Yeo J., Scheinert S. R. (2018), Organizational adaptation under stress: tracing communication processes in four California county health departments during the H1N1 threat, April 28, 2009, to March 11, 2011, The American Review of Public Administration, 49, pp. 159-173.
  16. Costabile M. (2017), I social media nel marketing contemporaneo. Passaparola digitale, customer adovcacy e influenza sociale nei processi di consume e nel marketing management, Micro & Macro Marketing, 78(3), 387-390.
  17. Cova B., Pace S. (2006), Brand community of convenience products: new forms of customer empowerment – the case “my Nutella The Community”, European Journal of Marketing, 40(9-10), pp. 1087-1105.
  18. Criado J.I., Guevara-Gómez A., Villodre J. (2020), Using collaborative technologies and social media to engage citizens and governments during the COVID-19 crisis. The case of Spain, Digital Government: Research and Practice, 1(4), pp. 1-7.
  19. del Mar Gálvez-Rodríguez M., Haro-de-Rosario A., Garía-Tabuyo M., Caba-Pérez C. (2019), Building online citizen engagement for enhancing emergency management in local European government. The case of the November 2015 Paris attacks, Online Information Review, 43(2), pp. 219-238.
  20. Di Camillo F., Marrone A., Silvestri S., Tessari P., Ungaro A. R. (2014), The Italian civil security system, Roma, Edizioni Nuova Cultura.
  21. Di Caro P. (2020), La resilienza delle regioni italiane durante il Covid-19: prime valutazioni, EyesReg, 10(6), pp. 1-5.
  22. Di Cosimo G., Menegus G. (2020), La gestione dell’emergenza coronavirus tra Stato e Regioni: alla ricerca della leale collaborazione, BioLaw Journal, 1S, pp. 183-199.
  23. Di Costanzo F. (2017), PA social. Viaggio nell’Italia della nuova comunicazione tra lavoro, servizi e innovazione, Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  24. Di Mascio F., Natalini A., Cacciatore F. (2020), Public administration and creeping crises: insights from COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, American Review of Public Administration, 50(6-7), pp. 621-627.
  25. Fisher Liu B., Kim S. (2011), How organizations framed the 2009 H1N1 pandemic via social and traditional media: implications for U.S. health communicators, Public Relations Review, 37, pp. 233-244.
  26. Fissi S., Gori E., Romolini A., Lunghi I. (2019), I social media nelle public utility quotate: stakeholder engagement o comunicazione?, Economia Aziendale Online, 10(3), pp. 505-524.
  27. FormezPA (2018), Social media e PA, dalla formazione ai consigli per l’uso - Il primo libro “in progress” della nuova comunicazione pubblica, Seconda edizione, Roma, FormezPA. -- http://focus.formez.it/sites/all/files/ii_edizione_ebook_social_media_e_pa.pdf (ultimo accesso 29 dicembre 2020).
  28. Gori E., Fissi S., Fiumanò M. (2018), Social Network e Stakeholder Engagement, un binomio tutto da sviluppare? Un confronto tra le università pubbliche di Italia e Cina, Management Control, 1, pp. 95-116.
  29. Guillamón M.-D., Ríos A.-M., Gesuele B., Metallo C. (2016), Factors influencing social media use in local governments: the case of Italy and Spain, Government Information Quarterly, 33, pp. 460-471.
  30. Guterres A. (2020), COVID-19: we will come through this together, United Nations, 13 marzo, -- https://www.un.org/en/coronavirus/covid-19-we-will-come-through-together (ultimo accesso 15 dicembre 2020).
  31. Hatcher W. (2020), A failure of political communication not a failure of bureaucracy: the danger of Presidential misinformation during the COVID-19 pandemic, American Review of Public Administration, 50(6-7), pp. 614-620.
  32. Hood C. (1991), A public management for all seasons?, Public Administration, 69(1), pp. 3-19.
  33. Hu Q., Knox C.C., Kapucu N. (2014), What have we learned since September 11, 2001? A network study of the Boston marathon bombings response, Public Administration Review, 74, 698-712.
  34. Hu Q., Kapucu N. (2016), Information communication technology utilization for effective emergency management networks, Public Management Review, 18(3), pp. 323-348.
  35. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, 53(1), pp. 59-68.
  36. Kiefer J.J., Montjoy R.S. (2006), Incrementalism before the storm: network performance for the evacuations of New Orleans, Public Administration Review, 66(Suppl. 1), pp. 122-130.
  37. Kim S.C., Hawkins K.H. (2020), The psychology of social media communication in influencing prevention intentions during the 2019 U.S. measles outbreak, Computer in Human Behavior, 111, 106428.
  38. La V.-P., Pham T.-H., Ho M.-T., …, Vuong Q.-H. (2020), Policy response, social media and science journalism for the sustainability of public health system amid the COVID-19 outbreak: the Vietnam Lessons, Sustainability, 12, pp. 1-27.
  39. Lawless M., Augoustinos M., LeCouteur A. (2018), Dementia on Facebook: requesting information and advice about dementia risk-prevention on social media, Discourse, Context & Media, 25, pp. 44-51.
  40. Li Y., Chandra Y., Kapucu N. (2020), Crisis coordination and the role of social media in response to COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, American Review of Public Administration, 60(6-7), pp. 698-705.
  41. Li L., Ma Z., Lee H., Lee S. (2021), Can social media data be used to evaluate the risk of human interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic?, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 56, 102142.
  42. Lind B.E., Tirado M., Butts C.T., Petrescu-Prahova M. (2008), Brokerage roles in disaster response: organizational mediation in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, International Journal of Emergency Management, 5, pp. 75-99.
  43. Linkov F., Shubnikov E., LaPORTE R. (2010), Globalization of public health communication: Preparing local leaders using the supercourse, Pandemics and Bioterrorism: Transdisciplinary Information Sharing for Decision-making Against Biological Threats, 62, 164.
  44. Lovari A. (2018), La cura dei social media per la comunicazione pubblica della salute. Esplorando pratiche, competenze e profili professionali, Problemi dell’Informazione, 2, pp. 239-264.
  45. Lovari A. (2019), Social media e pubblica amministrazione tra diritti e doveri: una prospettiva sociologica, Rivista Italiana di Informatica e Diritto, 1, pp. 87-95.
  46. Manetti G. (2011), The quality of stakeholder engagement in sustainability reporting: empirical evidence and critical points, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 18(2), pp. 110-122.
  47. Manetti G., Bellucci M., Bagnoli L. (2017), Stakeholder engagement and public information through social media: a study of Canadian and American Public Transportation Agencies, The American Review of Public Administration, 47(8), pp. 991-1009.
  48. Marino D. (2020), Sanità territoriale e gestione della crisi da Covid-19: le regioni italiane e il caso Lombardia, EyesReg, 10(5), pp. 1-11.
  49. Mergel I. (2012), Social media in the public sector: a guide to participation, collaboration and transparency in the networked world, Jossey-Bass.
  50. Missoni E., Ussai S., Armocida B. (2020), Che cosa possiamo imparare dalla gestione della comunicazione istituzionale durante l’emergenza Covid-19?, Mecosan, 113, 81-88.
  51. Montanari F., Pattaro A. F., Scapolan A. (2013), Comuni 2.0. Un’indagine esplorativa sull’utilizzo dei social media nei Comuni italiani di medie e grandi dimensioni, Azienda Pubblica, 2, pp. 191-220.
  52. Moretti A., Tuan A. (2014), Social media marketing and relationship marketing: revolution or evolution? A first step analysis, Sinergie, 32(9)3, pp. 115-137.
  53. Mori E., Barabaschi B., Cantoni F., Virtuani R. (2020), Local governments’ communication through Facebook. Evidences from COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, Journal of Public Affairs,
  54. Mossberger K., Wu Y., Crawford J. (2013), Connecting citizens and local governments? Social media and interactivity in major US cities, Government Information Quarterly, 30(4), pp. 351-358.
  55. Norris D. F., Reddick C. G. (2013), Local e-government in the United States: transformation or incremental change?, Public Administration Review, 73(1), pp. 165-175.
  56. Oh S.-H., Lee S.Y., Han C. (2020), The effects of social media use on preventive behaviours during infectious disease outbreaks: the mediating role of self-relevant emotions and public risk perception, Health Communication, pp. 1-10.
  57. Pattuglia S. (2020), Pandemia e comunicazione: l’analisi del caso dell’emergenza Covid-19, Mecosan, 113, 89-98.
  58. Power M. (2004), The risk management of everything: rethinking the policies of uncertainty, Londra, Demos.
  59. Presti C., Mancini D. (2020), Il risk management e i social media: un’analisi della loro relazione in letteratura, Management Control, 2, pp. 155-178.
  60. Protezione Civile Italiana (2020), Cronologia delle fasi principali e degli atti giuridici adottati dal Governo italiano per il contenimento dell'emergenza epidemiologica COVID-19, -- http://www.protezionecivile.gov.it/attivita-rischi/rischio-sanitario/emergenze/coronavirus/normativa-emergenza-coronavirus (Ultimo accesso 16 dicembre 2020).
  61. Prybutok G.L., Koh C., Prybutok V.R. (2014), A content relevance model for social media health information, Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 32(4), pp. 189-200.
  62. Quagli A. (2011), Internet e la comunicazione finanziaria, Milano, FrancoAngeli.
  63. Radwan A.F., Mousa S. A. (2020), Government communication strategies during coronavirus pandemic: United Arab Emirates lessons, Journal of Health Management, 22(4), pp. 516-527.
  64. Ramassa P., Di Fabio C. (2016), Web-based Financial Reporting: an interpretative model for corporate communications on social media, Financial Reporting, 2, pp. 79-112.
  65. Rodriguez H., Donner W., Trainor J. E. (Eds.) (2018), Handbook of disaster research, New York, Springer.
  66. Romolini A., Gori E., Fissi S., Durante C. (2020a), La digitalizzazione della pubblica amministrazione e l’utilizzo degli open data per la trasparenza, in Lombardi R., Chiucchi M.S., Mancini D. (a cura di), Smart technologies, digitalizzazione e capitale intellettuale. Sinergie e opportunità, Milano, FrancoAngeli, pp. 370-388.
  67. Romolini A., Fissi S., Gori E. (2020b), Visitors engagement and social media in museums: evidence from Italy, International Journal of Digital Culture and Electronic Tourism, 3(1), pp. 36-53.
  68. Rudman R.J. (2011), Using control frameworks to map risks in web 2.0 applications, Accounting and Management Information Systems, 10(4), pp. 495-515.
  69. Sanfelici M. (2020), The Italian response to the COVID-19 crisis: lessons learned and future direction in social development, The International Journal of Community and Social Development, 2(2), pp. 191-210.
  70. Saud M., Mashud M., Ida R. (2020), Usage of social media during the pandemic: seeking support and awareness about COVID-19 through social media platforms, Journal of Public Affairs, 20(4), pp. 1-9.
  71. Scherer C. W., Juanillo Jr. N. K. (2003), The continuing challenge of community health risk management and communication, in Thompson T. L., Dorsey A., Miller K.I., Parrott R. (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Health Communication, Routledge (pp. 221-239).
  72. Seeger M.W., Pechta L.E., Price S. M., … Smith B. J. (2018), A conceptual model for evaluating emergency risk communication in public health, Health Security, 16(3), pp. 193-203.
  73. Statista (2020), Most used Social Media in Italy in 2020, by type -- https://www.statista.com/statistics/787390/main-social-networks-users-italy/ [ultimo accesso 3 dicembre 2020].
  74. Su N., Reynolds D., Sun B. (2015), How to make your Facebook posts attractive – a case of a leading budget hotel brand fan page, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(8), pp. 1772-1790.
  75. Trottier D., Fuchs C. (2015), Social media, politics and the State: protest, revolutions, riots, crime and policing in the age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, Routledge, New York.
  76. Wang C., Horby P.W., Hayden F.G., Gao G.F. (2020), A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern, The Lancet, 395, 10223, pp. 470-473.
  77. Wang Y., Hao H., Sundahl Platt L. (2021), Examining risk and crisis communications of government agencies and stakeholders during early-stages of COVID-19 on Twitter, Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106568.
  78. We are Social (2020), Digital 2020 Global digital overview.
  79. Welch E.W., Hinnant C.C., Moon M.J. (2005), Linking citizen satisfaction with e-Government and trust in government, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(3), pp. 371-391.
  80. WHO (2008), Outbreak Communication planning guide, -- disponibile online all’indirizzo http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44014/9789241597449_eng.pdf;jsessionid=8FC801FE273507DF5EB783D39FC8171F?sequence=1, (data ultimo accesso 4 aprile 2020).
  81. WHO (2020a), Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report -11, 31 January 2020, -- disponibile online all’indirizzo https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200131-sitrep-11-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=de7c0f7_4, (data ultimo accesso: 3 ottobre 2020).
  82. WHO (2020b), Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report -51, 11 March 2020, -- disponibile online all’indirizzo https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200311-sitrep-51-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=1ba62e57_10, (data ultimo accesso: 3 ottobre 2020).
  83. Wukich C., Hu Q., Siciliano M.D. (2019), Cross-sector emergency information networks on social media: online bridging and bonding communication patterns, The American Review of Public Administration, 49(7), pp. 825-839.
  84. Young A.L., Butow P.N., Tucker K.M., Williams R., Healey E., Wakefield C.E. (2019), Health professional and at-risk BRCA young adult perspectives about information needs: what does gen Y need to know?, Journal of Genetic Counseling, 28(6), pp. 1154-1165.
  85. Zhang L., Li H., Chen K. (2020), Effective risk communication for public health emergency: reflection on the COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan, China, Healthcare, 64(8), pp. 1-13.

Silvia Fissi, Francesco Grazzini, in "MANAGEMENT CONTROL" suppl. 2/2021, pp. 265-288, DOI:10.3280/MACO2021-002-S1012

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche