Clicca qui per scaricare

Il ritiro sociale nei giovani italiani: una ricerca con professionisti della salute mentale
Titolo Rivista: SALUTE E SOCIETÀ 
Autori/Curatori: Adriano Zamperini, Ines Testoni, Stefania Marzini 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2021 Fascicolo: suppl. 2 Vivere l’emergenza. La società italiana e il servizio sanitario nazionale nella pandemia da Covid-19. Micol Bronzini, Stefano Neri (a cura di) Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  16 P. 219-234 Dimensione file:  233 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SES2021-002-S1014
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 




Social withdrawal in Italian youth: A research with mental health professionals. Social withdrawal among young people was considered a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome in Japan, but recently the phenomenon of social withdrawal of young people has appeared in several countries. However, there is no formal definition or diagnostic tool for social withdrawal. This research aims to help fill a gap in knowledge of social withdrawal in young Italians. Using semistructured interviews, data were collected from 18 mental health professionals. The findings were grouped into 5 main themes, namely escape from school, clinical definitions, the phenomenology of social withdrawal, virtual reality, and identity formation. The results showed that social withdrawal is associated with two psychological types: low self-esteem and high self-esteem. Furthermore, research suggests that social withdrawal may become a sort of "lifestyle" for young people, albeit socially opposed.
Keywords: youth social withdrawal; hikikomori; contemporary youth issue; psychosocial development; bullying; interpersonal rejection.

  1. Braun V., Clarke V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3: 77–101.
  2. Chan G.H.Y., Lo T.W. (2014). Quality of life of the hidden youth in Hong Kong. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 9: 951-969.
  3. Codato M., Shaver P.R., Testoni I., Ronconi L. (2011). Civic and moral disengagement, weak personal beliefs and unhappiness: A survey study of the “famiglia lunga” phenomenon in Italy. TPM - Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 18: 87-97., DOI: 10.4473/TPM20.2.
  4. Fansten M., Figueiredo C., Pionnie-Dax N., Vellut N. (2014). Hikikomori ces adolescents en retrait. Paris: Armand Colin.
  5. Furlong A. (2008). The Japanese hikikomori phenomenon: Acute social withdrawal among young people. Sociological Review, 56: 309-325.
  6. Furuhashi T., Tsuda H., Ogawa T., Suzuki K., Shimizu M., Teruyama J., Horiguchi S., Shimizu K., Sedooka A., Figueiredo C., Pionnié-Dax N., Tajan N., Fansten
  7. M., Vellut N., Castel P-H. (2013). Etat des lieux, points communs et différencies entre des jeunes adultes retirants sociaux en France et au Japon (Hikikomori). L’evolution psychiatrique, 78: 249-266.
  8. Garcia-Campayo J., Alda M., Sobradiel N., Sanz Abos B. (2007). A case of hikikomori in Spain. Medicina Clinica, 129: 318-319., DOI: 10.1157/1310912
  9. Gilman S.L. (1988). Disease and Representation. Images of Illness from Madness to AIDS. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press (trad. it.: 1993).
  10. Hacking I. (1999). The Social Construction of What? Cambridge: Harvard University Press (trad. it.: 2000).
  11. Hattori Y. (2006). Social withdrawal in Japanese youth: A case of study of thirtyfive hikikomori clients. Jo urnal of Trauma Practice, 4: 181-201.
  12. Heinze U., Thomas P. (2014). Self and salvation: Visions of hikikomori in Japanese manga. Journal of the German Institute for Japanese Studies of Tokyo, 26: 151-169.
  13. Hirashima, F. (2001). Psychopathology of social withdrawal in Japan. Japan Medical Association Journal, 44: 260-262.
  14. Itou J. (2003). Guideline on Mental Health Activities in Communities for Social Withdrawal. Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Kaneko S. (2006). Japan’s “socially withdrawan youths” and time constraints in Japanese society: Management and conceptualization of time in a support group of hikikomori. Time & Society, 15: 233-249., DOI: 10.1177/0961463X0606703
  15. Kato T.A., Tateno M., Shinfuku N., Fujisawa D., Teo A.R., Sartorius N., Akiyama T., Ishida T., Choi T. Y., Balhara Y.P.S., Matsumoto R., Umene-Nakano W., Fujimura Y., Wand A., Chang J.P-C., Chang R.Y-F., Shadloo B., Ahmed H.U.,
  16. Lerthattasilp T., Kanba S. (2012). Does the “hikikomori” syndrome of social withdrawal exist outside Japan? A preliminary international investigation. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47: 1061-1075.
  17. Kim J., Rapee R.M., Ja Oh K., Moon H-S. (2008). Retrspective report of social withdrawal during adolescence and current maladjustement in young adulthood: Cross-cultural comparisons between Australian and South Korean students. Journal of Adolescence, 31: 543-563.
  18. Kondo N., Sakai M., Kuroda Y., Kiyota Y., Kitabata Y., Kurosawa M. (2013). General condition of hikikomori (prolonged social withdrawal) in Japan: Psychiatric diagnosis and outcome in mental health welfare centres. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59: 79-86., DOI: 10.1177/002076401142361
  19. Krieg A., Dickie J.R. (2013). Attachment and hikikomori: A psychosocial developmental model. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59: 61-72., DOI: 10.1177/002076401142318
  20. Lancini, M., a cura di (2019). Il ritiro sociale negli adolescenti. La solitudine di una generazione iperconnessa. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  21. Lee Y.S., Lee J.Y., Choi T.Y., Choi J.T. (2013). Home visitation program for detecting, evaluating and treating socially withdrawan youth in Korea. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 67: 193-202.
  22. Li M.H.T., Wong W.C. (2015). Youth social withdrawal behavior (hikikomori): A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49: 1-15., DOI: 10.1177/000486741558117
  23. Malagon-Amor A., Corcoles-Martinez D., Martin-Lopez L.M., Perez-Solà V. (2015). Hikikomori in Spain: A descriptive study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61: 1-9., DOI: 10.1177/002076401455300
  24. Nagata T., Yamada H., Teo A.R., Yoshimura C., Nakajima T., van Vliet I. (2013). Comorbid social withdrawal (hikikomori) in outpatients with social anxiety disorder: Clinical characteristics and treatment response in a case series. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59: 73-78., DOI: 10.1177/002076401142318
  25. Nichter M. (1981). Idioms of distress: Alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress. A case of study from South India. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 5: 379-408.
  26. Ogino, T. (2004). Managing categorization and social withdrawal in Japan: Rehabilitation process in a private support group for Hikikomorians. International Journal of Japanese Society, 13: 120-133.
  27. Ricci C. (2008). Hikikomori: adolescenti in volontaria reclusione. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  28. Ricci C. (2014). La volontaria reclusione. Italia e Giappone: un legame inquietante. Roma: Aracne.
  29. Sagliocco G., a cura di (2011). Hikikomori e adolescenza. Fenomenologia dell’autoreclusione. Milano-Udine: Mimesis.
  30. Saito T. (1998-2013). Hikikomori: Adolescence Without End. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  31. Sakamoto N., Martin R.R., Kumano H., Tomifusa K., Al-Adawi S. (2005). Hikikomori, is it a culture-reactive or culture-bound syndrome? Nidotherapy and a clinical vignette from Oman. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 35: 191-198., DOI: 10.2190/7WEQ-216D-TVNH-PQJ
  32. Spiniello, R. Piotti, A. Comazzi, D., a cura di (2015). Il corpo in una stanza. Adolescenti ritirati che vivono di computer. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  33. Suwa M., Hara K. (2007). Hikikomori among young adults in Japan. The importance of differential diagnosis between primary Hikikomori and Hikikomori with highfunctioning pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Medical Welfare, 3: 94-102.
  34. Suwa M., Suzuki K., Hara K., Watanabe H., Takahashi T. (2003). Family features in primary social withdrawal among young adults. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 57: 586-594.
  35. Suzuki K. (2009). À propos du phénomène de Hikikomori. Abstract Psychiatry, 41: 4-5.
  36. Tajan, N. (2015). Social withdrawal and psychiatry: A comprehensive review of Hikikomori. Neuropsychiatre de l’Enfance et de l’Adolescence, 63: 324-331.
  37. Teo A.R. (2010). A new form of social withdrawal in Japan: A review of hikikomori. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 56: 178-185., DOI: 10.1177/002076400810062
  38. Teo A.R., Fetters M.D., Stufflebam K., Tateno M., Balhara Y., Choi T.Y., Kanba S.,
  39. Mathews C.A., Kato T.A. (2015). Identification of the hikikomori syndrome of social withdrawal: Psychosocial features and treatment preferences in four countries. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61: 64-72., DOI: 10.1177/002076401453575
  40. Teo A.R., Kato T. (2015). The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal in Hong Kong. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 16:102., DOI: 10.1177/002076401455492
  41. Teo, A.R., Gaw A.C. (2010). Hikikomori, a Japanese culture-bound syndrome of social withdrawal? A proposal for DSM-5. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198: 444-449.
  42. differences between sick-literature and tales by amateur writers. TPM - Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 23: 247-263., DOI: 10.4473/TPM23.2.
  43. Wong P.W., Li T.M., Chan M., Law Y.W., Chau M., Cheng C., Fu K.W., Bacon-Shone J., Yip P.S. (2014). The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal (hikikomori) in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional telephone-based survey study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61: 330-342., DOI: 10.1177/002076401454371
  44. Wong V. (2009). Youth locked in time and space? Defining features of social withdrawal and practice implications. Journal of Social Work, 23: 337-352.
  45. Zamperini A. (2010). L’ostracismo. Essere esclusi, respinti e ignorati. Torino: Einaudi.
  46. Zamperini A., Paoloni C., Testoni I. (2015). Il lavoro emozionale dell’assistenza infermieristica: Incidenti critici e strategie di coping. Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca, 34: 142-148., DOI: 10.1702/2038.2214
  47. Zamperini A., Siracusa V., Menegatto M. (2017). Accountability and police violence: A research on accounts to cope with excessive use of force in Italy. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 32: 172-183.
  48. Zamperini A., Testoni I., Primo D., Prandelli M., Monti C. (2016). Because moms say so: Narratives of lesbian mothers in Italy. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 12: 91-110., DOI: 10.1080/1550428X.2015.110266

Adriano Zamperini, Ines Testoni, Stefania Marzini, in "SALUTE E SOCIETÀ" suppl. 2/2021, pp. 219-234, DOI:10.3280/SES2021-002-S1014

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche