Accessibility by proximity index for a fairer city. An implementation in a Milan district

Journal title TERRITORIO
Author/s Paola Pucci, Luigi Carboni, Giovanni Lanza
Publishing Year 2022 Issue 2021/99 Language Italian
Pages 13 P. 40-52 File size 624 KB
DOI 10.3280/TR2021-099006
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page .

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Anteprima articolo

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The paper describes the preliminary results of a research aimed at implementing an accessibility by proximity index (iapi) to orient measures for improving the supply and the access to essential daily services at the neighborhood scale. Within a theoretical framework that recognizes the role of accessibility to guarantee participation and social inclusion, the paper proposes an index of accessibility by proximity based on the principle of basic accessibility (Martens, 2017), describes the results of the experimentation in Crescenzago neighborhood in Milan, and the future research developments.

Keywords: accessibility by proximity; basic accessibility; 15-minute city

  1. Alfonzo M., 2005, «To walk or not to walk? The hierarchy of walk- ing needs». Environment and behavior, 37, 6: 808-836. DOI: 10.1177/0013916504274016
  2. Ascher F., 2004, «Les sens du mouvement: modernité et mobilités dans les sociétés urbaines contemporaines». In: Allemand S., Ascher F., Lévy
  3. J. (eds.), Les sens du movement. Paris: Belin, 21-34.
  4. Bausells M., 2016, «Superblocks to the rescue: Barcelona’s plan to give streets back to residents». -- www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/may/17/ superblocks-rescue-barcelona-spain-plan-give-streets-back-residents (accesso: 2020.09.15).
  5. Barthélemy M., 2011 «Spatial networks». Physics Reports, 499, 1-3: 1-101.
  6. Benenson I., Martens K., Rofé Y., 2010, «Measuring the gap between car and transit accessibility: Estimating access using a high-resolution tran- sit network geographic information system». Transportation Research Record, 2144: 28-35. DOI: 10.3141/2144-04
  7. Bertolini L., Curtis C., Renne J., 2012, «Station area projects in Europe and beyond: Towards transit oriented development?». Built Environment, 38, 1: 31-50.
  8. Bertolini L., 2012, «Integrating mobility and urban development agen- das: A manifesto». disp-The Planning Review, 48, 1: 16-26. DOI: 10.1080/02513625.2012.702956
  9. Bertolini L., le Clercq F., 2003, «Urban development without more mo- bility by car? Lessons from Amsterdam, a multimodal urban region». Environment and Planning A, 35, 4: 575-589.
  10. Boeing G., 2017, «osmnx: New methods for acquiring, constructing, analyzing, and visualizing complex street networks». Computers Environment and Urban Systems, 65: 126-139.
  11. Bertolini L., 2020, «From ‘streets for traffic’ to ‘streets for people’: Can street experiments transform urban mobility?». Transport Reviews, 40, 6: 734-753. DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2020.1761907.
  12. Cathcart-Keays A., 2015, «Will we ever get a truly car-free city?». www. theguardian.com/cities/2015/dec/09/car-free-city-oslo-helsinki-copen- hagen (accesso: 2015.12.09).
  13. Cervero R., Radisch C., 1996, «Travel choices in pedestrian versus au- tomobile-oriented neighborhoods». Transport Policy, 3, 127-141. DOI: 10.1016/0967-070X(96)00016-9
  14. Cervero R., 2004, ed., «Transit oriented development in the United States: Experiences, challenges and prospects». tcrp Report, 102. Washington: Transportation Research Board.
  15. City of Portland, 2012, «The Portland plan». -- www.portlandonline.com/ portlandplan/index.cfm?c=56527 (accesso: 2021.12.02).
  16. Comune di Milano, 2020, «Strategia di adattamento. Strade aperte». http://img.trk.comune.milano.it/static/105044/assets/2/30.4%20Strade%20 Aperte.pdf (accesso: 2021.12.02).
  17. Comune di Milano, 2021, «Reinventing cities. A Crescenzago la nuova porta d’accesso al Parco Lambro: social housing, verde e ciclabili». -- www.comune.milano.it/-/reinventing-cities.-a-crescenzago-la-nuo- va-porta-d-accesso-al-parco-lambro-social-housing-verde-e-ciclabili (accesso: 2021.12.02).
  18. Currie G., Delbosc A., 2010, «Modelling the social and psychological impacts of transport disadvantage». Transportation, 37, 6: 953-966.
  19. Farrington J., Farrington C., 2005, «Rural accessibility, social inclusion and social justice: towards conceptualization». Journal of Transport Geog- raphy, 13, 1: 1-12.
  20. Farrington J.H., 2007, «The new narrative of accessibility: its potential con- tribution to discourses in (transport) geography». Journal of Transport Geography, 15, 5: 319-330.
  21. Ferreira A., Beukers E., Te Brömmelstroet M., 2012, «Accessibility is gold, mobility is not: A proposal for the improvement of Dutch trans- port-related cost-benefit analysis». Environment and Planning B, 39, 4: 683-697.
  22. Ferreira A., Bertolini L., Næss P., 2017, «Immotility as resilience? A key consideration for transport policy and research». Applied Mobilities, 2, 1: 16-31. DOI: 10.1080/23800127.2017.1283121
  23. Ferreira A., Papa E., 2020, «Re-enacting the mobility versus accessibility debate: Moving towards collaborative synergies among experts». Case Studies on Transport Policy, 8, 3: 1002-1009.
  24. Geurs K.T., van Wee B., 2004 «Accessibility evaluation of land-use and transport strategies: Review and research directions». Journal of Transport Geography, 12, 2: 127-140.
  25. Geurs K.T., Boon W., van Wee B., 2009, «Social impacts of transport: Literature review and state of the practice transport appraisal in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom». Transport reviews, 29, 1: 69-90. DOI: 10.1080/01441640802130490
  26. Givoni M., Banister D., 2010, Integrated transport: From policy to practice. London & New York: Routledge.
  27. Handy S., 2020, «Is accessibility an idea whose time has finally come?». Transportation Research Part D, 83: 102319.
  28. Handy S.L., Boarnet M.G., Ewing R., Killingsworth R.E., 2002, «How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urban planning». American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 2 (suppl. 1): 64-73. DOI: 10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00475-0
  29. Jian I.Y., Luo J., Chan E.H.W., 2020, «Spatial justice in public open spa- ce planning: Accessibility and inclusivity». Habitat International, 97: 1012122.
  30. Jones S., 2018, «It’s the only way forward: Madrid bans polluting vehicles from city centre». -- www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/nov/30/its-the- only-way-forward-madrid-bans-polluting-vehicles-from-city-centre (accesso: 2021.12.02).
  31. Kaufmann V., Bergmann M.M., Joye D., 2004, «Motility: Mobility as capital». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28, 4: 745-756.
  32. Kenyon S., Lyons G., Rafferty J., 2002, «Transport and social exclusion: Investigating the possibility of promoting inclusion through virtual mobility». Journal of Transport Geography, 10, 3: 207-219. DOI: 10.1016/S0966-6923(02)00012-1
  33. King D., Krizek K., 2020, «The power of reforming streets to boost ac- cess for human-scaled vehicles». Transportation Research Part D, 83: 102336.
  34. Lucas K., 2012, «Transport and social exclusion: Where are we now?». Transport Policy, 20: 105-113.
  35. Lucas K., van Wee B., Maat K., 2016, «A method to evaluate equitable accessibility: Combining ethical theories and accessibility-based approaches». Transportation, 43, 3: 473-490.
  36. Lyons G., Davidson C., 2016, «Guidance for transport planning and poli- cymaking in the face of an uncertain future». Transportation Research Part A, 88: 104-116.
  37. Martens K., 2017, Transport justice: Designing fair transportation sys- tems. London & New York: Routledge.
  38. Moreno C., 2016, La ville du quart d’heure. Pour un nouveau chro- no-urbanisme. -- www.latribune.fr/regions/smart-cities/la-tribune-de- carlos-moreno/la-ville-du-quart-d-heure-pour-un-nouveau-chrono- urbanisme-604358.html (accesso: 2021.09.27).
  39. Moreno C., 2020, Droit de cité. Paris: Humensis.
  40. Moreno C., Allam Z., Chabaud D., Gall C., Pratlong F., 2021, «Introdu- cing the 15-minute city: Sustainability, resilience and place identity in future post-pandemic cities». Smart Cities, 4, 1: 93-111.
  41. Preston J., Rajé F., 2007, «Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion». Journal of Transport Geography, 15, 3: 151-160.
  42. Pucci P., 2019, «Dialogando sui movimenti. La mobilità come capitale spaziale». In: Perrone C., Paba G. (a cura di), Confini, movimenti, luoghi. Politiche e progetti per città e territori in transizione. Roma: Donzelli, 59-68.
  43. Pucci P., Lanza G., Vendemmia B., 2021, «Distributing, de-synchro- nizing, digititalizing. dealing with transport inequalities in Milan in post-coronavirus society». In: Doucet B., van Melik, R., Filion P. (eds.), Global reflections on covid-19 and cities: Urban inequalities and the pandemic. Bristol: University Press, 201-210.
  44. Pucci P., Vecchio G., 2019, Enabling mobilities. Planning tools for people and their mobilities. Cham: Springer.
  45. Pucci P., Vecchio G., Bocchimuzzi L., Lanza G., 2019, «Inequalities in job-related accessibility: testing an evaluative approach and its po- licy relevance in Buenos Aires». Applied Geography, 107: 1-11.
  46. Salon D., 2016, «Estimating pedestrian and cyclist activity at the nei- ghborhood scale». Journal of Transport Geography, 55: 1-21.
  47. State Government of Victoria, 2017, «Melbourne plan». www.planmel- bourne.vic.gov.au (accesso: 2021.12.02).
  48. Transport for London, 2020, «Assessing public transport accessibility level in London (ptal)». -- http://content.tfl.gov.uk/connectivity-as- sessment-guide.pdf (accesso: 2021/12/02).
  49. Trudeau R.J., 1994, Introduction to graph theory. New York: Dover Publications.
  50. van Wee B., 2011, Transport and ethics: Ethics and the evaluation of transport policies and projects. Celtenham: Elgar.
  51. van Wee B., Geurs K., 2011, «Discussing equity and social exclusion in accessibility evaluations». European Journal of Transport and Infra- structure Research, 11, 4: 350-367.
  52. Vernez-Moudon A., Hess P., Snyder M., Stanilov K., 1997, «Effects of site design on pedestrian travel in mixed-use, medium-density environments». Transportation Research Record, 1578, 1: 48-55. DOI: 10.3141/1578-07

Paola Pucci, Luigi Carboni, Giovanni Lanza, Accessibilità di prossimità per una città più equa. Sperimentazione in un quartiere di Milano in "TERRITORIO" 99/2021, pp 40-52, DOI: 10.3280/TR2021-099006