Teacher burnout: the protective role of contextual factors and perceptions related to school efficacy and territorial resources

Author/s Giovanna Petrillo, Anna Rosa Donizzetti
Publishing Year 2013 Issue 2013/2
Language Italian Pages 24 P. 96-119 File size 415 KB
DOI 10.3280/PDS2013-002007
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The literature on teacher burnout explored the relationship between burnout and the factors that contribute or that can protect from this risk. The effect of the school environment (normal or at risk for dropout and delays of students), teachers’ believes in school efficacy, and related to territorial resources in which the school is situated on teacher burnout is less explored. These variables were considered in this study with the aim to analyze its protective role against burnout. Participants were 174 high school teachers, which were administered the Collective Efficacy Scale linking school context, Perception of Territorial Resources Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results of the multiple regressions confirm the protective function of the school collective efficacy and territorial resources for burnout and particularly for the dimension of personal accomplishment; while the perception of territorial resources remains significant negative predictor of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. These results are in line with new approaches to burnout, considered as a construct arising not only from individual, but also organizational and social factors. The results of the study may be useful to design strategies to prevent teacher burnout focused on strengthening of the relations between teachers and other educational components, as well as the strengthening of human, materials and environment resources in the local area of the school.

Keywords: Teachers burnout, collective efficacy, territorial resources, school context

  1. Akhavan Anvari M.R., Seyed Kalali N. and Gholipour A. (2011), How does Personality Affect on Job Burnout?, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 2(2), 115-119.
  2. Argentero P., Dell’Olivo B., Setti I. e Zanaletti W. (2008). I rischi psicosociali [Psychosocial risks]. In: Argentero P., Cortese C.G. e Piccardo C., a cura di, Psicologia del lavoro [Psychology of Work], Milano: Raffaello Cortina, pp. 203-232.
  3. Bakker A.N. and Demerouti E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22: 309-328. DOI: 10.1108/0268394071073311
  4. Bandura A. (1997), Self-efficacy. The exercise of control, New York: Freeman (tr. it.: Autoefficacia. Teoria e applicazioni, Trento: Erickson, 2000).
  5. Bandura A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52: 1-26. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.
  6. Bandura A. (2006). Adolescent development from an agent perspective. In: Pajares F. and Urdan
  7. T., editors, Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp 307-337 (tr. it. Lo sviluppo dell’adolescenza secondo una prospettiva agentica. In: Pajares F. e Urdan T., a cura di, L’autoefficacia degli adolescenti. Dalla scuola ai comportamenti a rischio, Trento: Erickson, 2007).
  8. Bandura A. and Locke E.A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 87-99. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.8
  9. Betoret F.D. (2006). Stressors, self-efficacy, coping resources, and burnout among secondary school teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology, 26 (4): 519-539. DOI: 10.1080/0144341050034249
  10. Billingsley B.S. and Cross L.H. (1992). Predictors of commitment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in teaching: a comparison of general and special educators. The Journal of Special Education, 25 (4): 453-471. DOI: 10.1177/00224669920250040
  11. Bobbio A., Manganelli Rattazzi A.M. and Muraro M. (2007). Empowering Leadership Style in ambito sanitario. Uno studio sul coordinatore infermieristico [Empowering Leadership Style in health care. A study on the nursing coordinator]. Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia Supplemento A, Psicologia, 29 (1): A37-A49.
  12. Borgogni L., Armandi F., Consiglio C. e Petitta L. (2005). Job burnout ed efficacia personale: uno studio preliminare [Job burnout and Self-efficacy: A preliminary study]. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 245: 31-44.
  13. Borgogni L., Petitta L. e Steca P. (2001). Efficacia percepita personale e collettiva nei contesti organizzativi [Perceived personal and collective efficacy in organizational contexts]. In: Caprara G.V., a cura di, La valutazione dell’autoefficacia [Self-efficacy assessment], Trento: Erickson, pp.157-171.
  14. Burke R.J., Greenglass E.R. and Schwarzer R. (1996). Predicting teacher burnout over time: Effects of work stress, social support, and self-doubts on burnout and its consequences. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal, 9 (3): 261-275. DOI: 10.1080/1061580960824940
  15. Cano-Garcìa F.J., Padilla-Muñoz E.M. and Carrasco-Ortiz M.Á. (2005). Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout. Personality and individual differences, 38: 929-940. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.01
  16. Capone V., Petrillo G. (2012). Costruzione e validazione della health Profession Communication Collective Efficacy Scale. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 4: 903-930. DOI: 10.1421/73148
  17. Caprara G.V. (2002). Dall’efficacia personale a quella collettiva [From personal efficacy to collective
  18. efficacy]. In: Bellotto M. e Zatti A., a cura di, Psicologia a più dimensioni [Multimensional psichology]. Milano: Franco Angeli, pp. 161-168.
  19. Caprara G.V., Barbaranelli C., Borgogni L. and Steca P. (2003). Efficacy beliefs as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 (4): 821-832. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.82
  20. Caprara G.V., Barbaranelli C., Steca P. and Malone P.S. (2006), Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement. A study at the school level, Journal of School Psychology, 44: 473-490. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09.00
  21. Caprara G.V., Borgogni L., Barbaranelli C. e Rubinacci A. (1999). Convinzioni di efficacia e cambiamento organizzativo [Efficacy beliefs and organizational change]. Sviluppo e organizzazione, 174: 19-25.
  22. Cherniss C. (1993). Role of professinal self-efficacy in the etiology and amelioration of burnout. In: Schaufeli W.B., Maslach C. and Marek T., editors, Professional burnout: Recent development in theory and research. Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis, pp. 135-149.
  23. De Carlo N., Falco A., Dal Corso L. e Pastore M. (2008). Variabili antecedenti e conseguenti al benessere organizzativo: il ruolo dell’impegno organizzativo [Variables antecedent and consequent welfare organization: the role of organizational commitment]. In: Di Nuovo S. e Sprini G., a cura di, Teorie e metodi della psicologia italiana: tendenze attuali. In memoria di Angelo Majorana, psicologo in terra di confine [Theories and methods of Italian psychology: current trends. In memory of Angelo Majorana, a psychologist in the borderland], Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 164-172.
  24. Demerouti E., Bakker A.B., Nachreiner F. and Schaufeli W.D. (2001). The job demandsresources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (3): 499- 512. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.49
  25. Di Maria F., Di Nuovo S. e Lavanco G. (2001). Stress e aggressività [Stress and Aggression]. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  26. Di Pietro M. e Rampazzo L. (1997). Lo stress dell’insegnante [Teacher Stress]. Trento: Erickson.
  27. Edelwich J. and Brodsky A. (1980). Burn-out. New York: Human Sciences Press.
  28. Farber B.A. (1983). Stress and burnout in human service professions. New York: Pergamon Press.
  29. Fiorilli C. (2003). Le concezioni degli insegnanti sull’intelligenza e l’importanza di trasformare le credenze in conoscenze [The teachers’ understanding of intelligence and the importance of transforming beliefs into knowledge]. In: Albanese O., a cura di, Percorsi meta cognitivi [Meta cognitive paths]. Milano: Franco Angeli, pp. 90-114.
  30. Francescato D., Putton A. e Capaldo A. (1994). La sindrome del burnout negli insegnanti [The syndrome of burnout in teachers]. Psicologia e Scuola, 70: 30-34.
  31. Francescato D., Putton A. e Cudini S. (1997). Star bene insieme a scuola [Feeling good together in school]. Roma: La Nuova Italia Scientifica.
  32. Gibson G. (1999). Do they do what they believe they can? Group Efficacy and Group Effectiveness across task and culture. Academy of Management Journal, 42 (2): 138-152. DOI: 10.2307/25708
  33. Goddard R.D. and Goddard Y.L. (2001). A multilevel analysis of the relationship between teacher and collective efficacy in urban schools. Teacher and Teacher Education, 17 (7): 807-818. DOI: 10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00032-
  34. Goddard R.D., Hoy W.K. and Woolfolk Hoy A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and effect on student achievement. American Education Research Journal, 37 (2): 479-507.
  35. Goddard R.D., Hoy W.K. and Woolfolk Hoy A. (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33 (3): 3-13.
  36. Gully S.M., Incalcaterra K.A., Joshi A. and Beaubien J.M. (2002). A meta-analysis of teamefficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 819-832. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.5.81
  37. Harrison R.V. (1983). A social competence model of burnout: Stress and burnout in Human Service Professions. New York: Pergamon Press.
  38. Hobfall S.E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualising stress. American Psychologist, 44: 513-524.
  39. Hoy W.K., Sweetland S.R. and Smith P.A. (2002). Toward an organizational model of achievement in high schools: The significance of collective efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38 (1): 77-93. DOI: 10.1177/0013161X0238100
  40. Hoyle E. (1978). Il ruolo dell’insegnante. Teramo: Lisciani e Zampetti Ed. (ed. or. 1975).
  41. Jerald C.D. (2007). Believing and achieving. Washington, D.C: Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement.
  42. Kahn J.H., Schneider K.T., Jenkins-Henkelman T.M. and Moyle L. (2006). Emotional social support and job burnout among high-school teachers: it is all due to dispositional affectivity? Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27: 793-807. DOI: 10.1002/job.39
  43. Karasek R.A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain implication for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24 (2): 285-307. DOI: 10.2307/239249
  44. Lee R.T. and Ashforth B.E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 123-133. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.12
  45. Maslach C. (1982). Burnout, the cost of caring, New York: Prentice Hall Press.
  46. Maslach C. and Jackson S.E. (1986). The Maslach Burnout Inventory. Palo Alto Ca: Consulting Psychologist Press (tr. it. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali, 2001).
  47. Maslach C. and Leiter M.P. (2000). Burnout e organizzazione. Modificare i fattori strutturali della demotivazione al lavoro, Trento: Erickson (ed. or. The truth about burnout. How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it, USA: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1997).
  48. Maslach C. and Leiter M.P. (2004). Organizational Checkup System. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali (ed. or. 1997).
  49. Maslach C., Schaufeli W.B. and Leiter M.P. (2001). Job burnout, Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.39
  50. McKnight J.L. and Kretzmann J.P. (1997). Mapping community capacity. In: Minkler M., editor, Community organizing, & community building for health. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
  51. Miur – Sistema Informativo (2005). La Scuola Statale: Sintesi Dei Dati. A.S. 2004/2005 [The State School: Summary Of Data. School Year 2004/2005]. Roma.
  52. Pedditzi M.L. (2005). La fatica di insegnare. Stress e burnout nel mondo della scuola [The effort to teach. Stress and burnout in schools]. Cagliari: Cooperativa Universitaria Editrice Cagliaritana.
  53. Peracchi M. (1992). Il burnout: un inquadramento generale [Burnout: a general overview]. Psicologia e Scuola, 59: 13-22.
  54. Petrillo G. (2008). Introduzione [Introduction]. In: Petrillo G. e Caso D., a cura di, Promuovere la salute nei contesti educativi. Comportamenti salutari e benessere tra gli adolescenti[Promoting health in educational settings. Healthy behaviors and well-being among adolescents]. Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 15-74.
  55. Petrillo G., a cura di (2012). Senso di giustizia e benessere in adolescenza. Gestire i conflitti e educare alla convivenza nella famiglia, nella scuola e nella comunità [Sense of justice and well-being in adolescence. Managing conflict and coexistence in educating the family, school and community]. Roma: Carocci.
  56. Petrillo G. e Capone V. (2011). La Scala di Efficacia Scolastica nella Tutela dei Diritti dei Minori: validazione di un originale strumento di rilevazione [The Scale of School Effectiveness in the Protection of the Rights of the Child: validation of an original survey instrument], Psicologia Scolastica, 10 (1): 9-39.
  57. Petrillo G. e Donizzetti A.R. (2008a). Responsabilità educative e diritti dei minori. Influenza delle percezioni di efficacia e del contesto [Educational responsibilities and rights of children. Influence perceptions of effectiveness and the context]. Psicologia Sociale, 1: 103-131.
  58. Petrillo G. e Donizzetti A.R. (2008b). Burnout degli insegnanti: il ruolo dell’autoefficacia percepita e del contesto scolastico [Teacher burnout: the role of self-efficacy and perceived school context].
  59. In: AA.VV., La salute come responsabilità sociale condivisa [Health as a shared social responsibility], Volume degli Abstract del VIII Congresso Nazionale della S.I.P.SA. – Società Italiana di Psicologia della Salute (Rovigo, 1-4 ottobre), Rovigo, p. 26.
  60. Skaalvik E.M. and Skaalvik S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations.
  61. Petrillo G. e Donizzetti A.R. (2008c). Burnout degli insegnanti: il ruolo protettivo dei fattori contestuali e delle percezioni riferite alla comunità scolastica e alle risorse del territorio [Teacher Burnout: the protective role of contextual factors and perceptions related to the school community and local resources]. In: AA.VV., Persone, Comunità, Convivenze [People, Communities, Cohabitation], Volume degli Abstract del VII Congresso Nazionale della SIPCO – Società Italiana di Psicologia di Comunità (Firenze, 25-27 settembre), Firenze, pp. 203-204.
  62. Petrillo G., Capone V. e Donizzetti A.R. (2012). Percezioni di giustizia in classe: relazioni con le percezioni di efficacia collettiva, il senso di comunità scolastica e il benessere degli studenti [Perceptions of Justice in the classroom: relationships with perceptions of collective efficacy, the sense of school community and the well-being of students]. In: Petrillo G., a cura di, Senso di giustizia e benessere in adolescenza. Gestire i conflitti e educare alla convivenza nella famiglia, nella scuola e nella comunità [The Scale of School Effectiveness in the Protection of the Rights of the Child: validation of an original survey instrument]. Roma: Carocci, pp. 139-163.
  63. StecaP.,PicconiL.eGerbinoM.(2002).Convinzionidiefficacia,percezionidicontesto,atteggiamentiversoillavoroesoddisfazione[Efficacybeliefs,perceptionsofcontext,attitudestowardsworkandsatisfaction].Psicologiadell’EducazioneedellaFormazione,4:73-92
  64. Pinelli M. (1999). Il burnout nell’insegnante. Rapporto tra aspetti di personalità ed esaurimento psichico. Psicologia e Scuola, 96: 4-14.
  65. Rossati A. e Magro G. (1999). Stress e burnout. Roma: Carocci.
  66. Sakharov M. and Farber B.A. (1983). A critical study of burnout teachers. In: Farber B.A., editor, Stress and burnout in human service professions, New York: Pergamon Press.
  67. Salanova M., Llorens S., Cifre E., Martinez I. and Schaufeli W.B. (2003). Perceived collective efficacy, subjective well-being and task performance among electronic work groups: An experimental study. Small Groups Research, 34: 43-73. DOI: 10.1177/104649640223957
  68. Santinello M. (1990). La sindrome del burnout [The burnout syndrome]. Pordenone: Erip Editrice.
  69. Santinello M. (2002). Ecological assessment: con quali strumenti analizzare gli ambienti di vita [Ecological assessment: what tools to analyze the living environments]. In: Prezza M. e Santinello M., a cura di, Conoscere la comunità. L’analisi degli ambienti di vita quotidiana [Knowing the community. The analysis of the environments of daily life]. Bologna: Il Mulino, pp. 17-38.
  70. Schaufeli W.B. and Salanova M. (2007). Work engagement: an emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizations. In: Gilliland S.W., Steiner D.D. and Skarlicki D.P., editors, Research in Social Issues in Management (Vol. 5): Managing Social and Ethical Issues in Organizations, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers, pp. 135-77.
  71. Schaufeli W.B., Leiter M.R., Maslach C. and Jackson S.E. (1996). MBI – General Survey. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychology Press.
  72. Schwarzer R. and Hallum S. (2008). Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analysis. Applied Psychology: An International Journal, 57: 152-171. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00359.
  73. Schwarzer R. and Jerusalem M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In: J. Weinman, S. Wright and M. Jhonston, editors, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio.Windsor: NFER-Nelson, pp. 35-38.
  74. Schwarzer R., Schmidt G.S. and Tang C. (2000). Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross-cultural validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 13: 309-326.
  75. Scrivens R. (1979). The big click. Today’s Educational, 68 (4): 34-35.
  76. Shirom A. (2005). Reflections on the study of burnout. Work & Stress, 19 (3): 263-270. DOI: 10.1080/0267837050037664
  77. Teaching and Teacher Education. 26: 1059-1069. DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2009.11.001
  78. Taddei S. (1988). Un’applicazione del Maslach Burnout Inventory con insegnanti elementari [An application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory with elementary teachers], Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 187-188: 47-54.
  79. Virtanen M., Kivimaki M., Pentti J., Oksanen T. Ahola K., Linna A., Kouvonen A., Salo P., and Jussi Vahtera (2010). School Neighborhood Disadvantage as a Predictor of Long-Term Sick Leave Among Teachers: Prospective Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171 (7):785–792. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwp45
  80. Wang S.L. and Lin S.S.J. (2007). The effects of group composition of self-efficacy and collective efficacy on computer-supported collaborative learning, Computer in Human Behavior, 23: 2256-2268.

  • Academic Community in the Face of Emergency Situations: Sense of Responsible Togetherness and Sense of Belonging as Protective Factors against Academic Stress during COVID-19 Outbreak Fortuna Procentese, Vincenza Capone, Daniela Caso, Anna Donizzetti, Flora Gatti, in Sustainability /2020 pp.9718
    DOI: 10.3390/su12229718
  • The English Version of the Health Profession Communication Collective Efficacy Scale (HPCCE Scale) by Capone and Petrillo, 2012 Vincenza Capone, Leda Marino, Anna Rosa Donizzetti, in European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education /2020 pp.1065
    DOI: 10.3390/ejihpe10040075
  • Protective and risk social dimensions of emergency remote teaching during COVID‐19 pandemic: A multiple mediation study Fortuna Procentese, Flora Gatti, Emiliano Ceglie, in Journal of Community Psychology /2023 pp.67
    DOI: 10.1002/jcop.22879
  • Mental health in teachers: Relationships with job satisfaction, efficacy beliefs, burnout and depression Vincenza Capone, Giovanna Petrillo, in Current Psychology /2020 pp.1757
    DOI: 10.1007/s12144-018-9878-7

Giovanna Petrillo, Anna Rosa Donizzetti, Burnout degli insegnanti: il ruolo protettivo dei fattori contestuali e delle percezioni riferite all’efficacia scolastica e alle risorse del territorio in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 2/2013, pp 96-119, DOI: 10.3280/PDS2013-002007