The narcissistic personality inventory: a self-report measure for quantitative researches on non-clinical samples

Author/s Pier Luigi Baldi, Marisa Giorgetti
Publishing Year 2017 Issue 2016/4
Language Italian Pages 38 P. 517-554 File size 300 KB
DOI 10.3280/RIP2016-004004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The aim of this research was the comparison between the data of two studies, both based on the application of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Scale (NPI) to samples of undergraduate students. The first sample (Baldi, 1998) consisted of 800 students, aged between 19 and 24, equally divided by gender, University and Faculty; the second one was recently conducted on a number of participants almost equal to the previous (808 students, aged between 18 and 25), with the same stratification by gender and Faculty. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory uses behavioural criteria as defined by American Psychiatric Association in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (3rd ed.) (DSM-II1) to evaluate narcissistic personality and also used by DSM-IV. The "narcissistic personality disorder" was later counted among the "personality disorders" by DSM-5. The data analysis show the following results: 1) a four-factor structure is confirmed, as previously reported by other authors (see, e.g., Emmons, 1984, 1987); 2) some items, which are saturated in the first or in the second factors are different in our two surveys: however in both of them the mostly saturated items in the first component (which accounts for the greatest percentage of variance), refer to exploitation and/or manipulation personality traits; 3) similar findings in relation to gender differences and Faculty are observed in our studies: males are more disposed to adopt narcissistic attitudes and behaviors; students of Law, both men and women, report higher scores of "narcissism" than students of Humanities, whose scores are lower than those of all the other Faculties.

Keywords: Personality, narcissism, measure, undergraduate students.

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III). Washington, D.C. (trad. it.: DSM-III. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali, Terza edizione. Masson: Milano,1983).
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R). Washington, D.C. (trad. it.: DSM-III-R. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali, Terza edizione, riveduta. Masson, Milano, 1988).
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSMIV). Washington, D.C. (trad. it. DSMIV. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali, Quarta edizione. Masson, Milano, 1995).
  4. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSMIV-TR). Washington, D.C. (trad. it.: DSMIV-TR. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali. Quarta edizione. Text Revision. Masson: Milano, 2001).
  5. American Psychiatric Publishing (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. DSM-5. Arlington, VA. (trad. it.: Massimo Biondi, Ed., 2014, Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali, quinta edizione, DSM-5. Raffaello Cortina, Milano).
  6. Auerbach, J.S. (1984). Validation of two scales for narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 649-673.
  7. Baldi, P.L. (1998). Narciso (o “della seduzione”) e le studentesse universitarie.  Ricerche di Psicologia, 4, 22, 31-52.
  8. Baumeister, R.F. (1999). The self in social psychology. Philadelphia PA: Psychology press.
  9. Biscardi, D., & Schill, T. (1985). Correlations of narcissistic traits with defensive style, machiavellianism, and empathy. Psychological Reports, 57, 354-354.
  10. Blum, O.S. (1950). Manual for the Blacky Pictures Test. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
  11. Brown, R.P., Budzek, K., & Tamborski, M. (2009). On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 951-964. DOI: 10.1177/0146167209335461
  12. Brown, R.P., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2004). Narcissism and the non-equivalence of self-esteem measures: A matter of dominance? Journal of Research in Personality, 38(6), 585-592.
  13. Carroll, J.B. (1961). The nature of the data, or how to choose a correlation coefficient. Psychometrika, 26, 347-372. DOI: 10.1007/BF02289768
  14. Carroll, L. (1987). A study of narcissism, affiliation, intimacy, and power motives among students in business administration. Psychological Reports, 61, 355-358.
  15. Cattell, R.B., Home, J.L. Sweney, A.B., & Radcliffe, J.A. (1964). Handbook jor the Motivation Analysis Test. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
  16. Del Rosario, P.M., & White, R.M. (2005). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: test-retest stability and internal consistency. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1075-1081.
  17. Dickinson, K.A., & Pincus, A.L. (2003). Interpersonal analysis of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 188-207.
  18. Ellis, H. (1898). Auto-eroticism: A psychological study. Alienist and Neurologist, 19, 260-299.
  19. Ellis, H. (1927). The conception of narcissism. Psychoanalytic Review, 14, 129-153.
  20. Emmons, R.A. (1984). Factor analysis and construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Joumal of Personality Assessment, 48, 291-300.
  21. Emmons, R.A. (1987). Narcissism: Theory and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 11-17.
  22. Exner, J.E. (1973). The Self Focus Sentence Completion: A Study of Egocentricity. Jr. Pers. Assess. 37(5), 437-55.
  23. Fabbroni, B. (2008). Tra le braccia di Narciso. Roma: EUR, Edizioni Universitarie Romane.
  24. Fossati, A., Borroni, S., & Maffei, C. (2008). Proprietà Psicometriche della Versione Italiana del Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Rivista di Psicologia Clinica, 1, 96-115.
  25. Gabbard, G.O. (1989). Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 527-532.
  26. Glass, O.V., & Stanley, J.C. (1970). Statistical methods in education and psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  27. Joubert, C. (1986). Social interest, loneliness, and narcissism. Psychological Reports, 58(3), 870-870.
  28. Kernberg, O. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.
  29. Kernberg, O. (1992). Aggression in personality disorders and perversions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  30. Kohut, H. (1971). The Analysis of the Self: A Systematic Approach to the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorders. New York: International Universities Press. DOI: 10.3928/0048-5713-19730801-06
  31. Kubarych, T.S., Deary, I.J., & Austin, E.J. (2004). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: factor structure in a non-clinical sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 857-872. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00158-2
  32. Leak, G. (1984). A multidimensional assessment of the validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 37-41.
  33. Mahler, M.S. (1972). Rapprochement Subphase of the Separation-Individuation Process. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 41, 487-506.
  34. Mahler, M.S., & Kaplan, L. (1977). Developmental aspects in the assessment of narcissistic and so-called borderline. In P. Hartocollis (ed.), Borderline personality disorders (pp.71-86). New York: International Universities Press.
  35. Miller, A. (1981). Prisoners of childhood. Basic Books, New York.
  36. Miller, J.D., Price, J., & Campbell, W.K. (2012). Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory still relevant? A test of independent grandiosity and entitlement scales in the assessment of narcissism. Assessment, 19, 8-13. DOI: 10.1177/1073191111429390
  37. Millon, T. (1982). Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.
  38. Modell, A.H. (1975). A narcissistic defense against affects and the illusion of self-sufficiency. Intemational Joumal of Psychoanalysis, 56, 275-282.
  39. Montebarocci, O., Codispoti, M., Baldaro, B., & Rossi, N. (2002). La validazione italiana di uno strumento di misura del narcisismo: il Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Ricerche di Psicologia, 2, 7-30.
  40. Morey, L.C., Waugh, M.H., & Blashfield, R.K. (1985). MMPI scales for DSM-I1I personality disorders: Their derivation and correlates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 245-251.
  41. Morf, C.C., & Rhodewalt, F. (1993). Narcissism and self-evaluation maintenance: Explorations in object relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 668-676. DOI: 10.1177/0146167293196001
  42. Murray, H.A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  43. Nacke, P. (1899). Die sexuellen perversitaten in der irrenanstalt. Psychiatrische en Neurologische Bladen, 3, 20-30.
  44. Phares, E.J., & Erskine, N. (1984). The measurement of selfism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 597-608. DOI: 10.1177/0013164484443007
  45. Prifitera, A., & Rian, J.J. (1984). Validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI in a psychiatric sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 140-142.
  46. Raskin, R. (1980). Narcissism and creativity: Are they related? Psychological Reports, 46, 55-60.
  47. Raskin, R., & Hall, C.S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological Reports, 45, 590.
  48. Raskin, R., & Hall, C.S. (1981). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Alternate form reliability and further evidence of construct validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 45, 159-162.
  49. Raskin, R., Novacek, I., & Hogan, R. (1991). Narcissism, self-esteem, and defensive self-enhancement. Journal of Personality, 59, 19-38.
  50. Raskin, R., & Shaw, R. (1988). Narcissism and the use of personal pronouns. Journal of Personality, 56, 393-404.
  51. Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890-902. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.890
  52. Rhodewalt, F., & Morf, C.C. (1995). Self and interpersonal correlates of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: A review and new findings. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 1-23.
  53. Robbins, S.B., & Patton, M.J. (1985). Self-psychology and career development: Construction of the Superiority and Goal Instability Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 221-231. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.32.2.221
  54. Rosenthal, S.A., & Hooley, J.M. (2010). Narcissism assessment in social-personality research: Does the association between narcissism and psychological health result from a confound with self-esteem. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 453-465.
  55. Sedikides, C., Rudich, E.A., Gregg, A.P., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. (2004). Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: self-esteem matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(3), 400-16. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.3.400
  56. Solomon, R.S. (1982). Validity of the MMPI Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale. Psychological Reports, 50, 463-466.
  57. Soyer, R.B., Rovenpor, J.L., Kopelman, R.E., Mullins, L.S., & Watson, P.J. (2001). Further assessment of the construct validity of four measures of narcissism: Replication and extension. Journal of Psychology, 135, 245-258.
  58. Thomas, V.A. (1981). Measurement and prediction of narcissism in adults with and without psychological treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 791-B, University Microfilms N° 8115446.
  59. Thurstone, L.L. (1947). Multiple-factor analysis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  60. Trzesniewski, K. H. Donnellan, M. B. e Robins, R. W. (2008), Do today’s young people really think they are so extraordinary? An examination of secular trends in narcissism and self-enhancement. Psychological Science, 19, 181-188.
  61. Watson, A. (1965). Objects and objectivity: A study in the relationship between narcissism and intellectual subjectivity. Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.
  62. Watson, P.J. Grisham, S.O., Trotter, M.V., & Biderman, M.D. (1984a). Narcissism and empathy: Validity evidence for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 301-305.
  63. Watson, P.J., Hood, R.W., & Morris, R.J. (1984b). Religious orientation, humanistic values and narcissism. Review of Religious Research, 25, 257-264. DOI: 10.2307/3511123
  64. Watson, P.I. Taylor, D., & Morris, R.I. (1987). Narcissism, sex roles, and self functioning. Sex roles, 16, 335-349. DOI: 10.1007/BF00289546
  65. Wink, P. (1991). Two faces of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 590-597. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.4.590

Pier Luigi Baldi, Marisa Giorgetti, La scala narcissistic personality inventory: uno strumento per la ricerca quantitativa su campioni non clinici in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 4/2016, pp 517-554, DOI: 10.3280/RIP2016-004004