The displacement hypothesis in suicide: Person and situation in psychopathology

Author/s Andrea Angelozzi
Publishing Year 2021 Issue 2021/2
Language Italian Pages 18 P. 247-264 File size 434 KB
DOI 10.3280/PU2021-002004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The failure of displacement to other suicide methods by reducing some opportunities is examined, particularly regarding the detoxification of domestic gas in England and the obstacles to jumping from the Golden Gate Bridge of San Francisco. Failure of displacement seems to characterize also other behaviors such as gambling, addictions, and crime. The displacement hypothesis is linked to the fundamental error of attribution that privileges the attention given to dispositional over situa-tional aspects. Biases related to this attribution error are examined, such as the lack of stability and coherence of dispositional aspects in time and in different situations, the lack of coherence be-tween attitudes and behaviors, and the errors that dispositional approaches induce in the predic-tion of behaviors with the variation of the situations. These biases question the traditional concept of personality and its role in symptom formation and behavioral prediction, and the traditional psychological models according to which behaviors are always a consequence of personal atti-tudes. The role of situational aspects, especially of the so-called "channels", has important preven-tive and therapeutic implications.

Keywords: Suicide; Displacement theory; Dispositional and situational models; Attribution error; Prediction

  1. Festinger L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press (trad. it.: Teoria della dissonanza cognitiva. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 1973).
  2. Asch S.E. (1940). Studies in the principles of judgments and attitudes: II. Determination of judgments by group and by ego standards. Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 3: 433-465. DOI: 10.1080/00224545.1940.9921487
  3. Asch S.E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 70, 9: 1-70.
  4. Barsalou L.W. (1987). The instability of graded structure: Implications for the nature of concepts. In: Neisser U., editor, Emory Symposia in Cognition. Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp. 101-140.
  5. Bateson J. (2012). The Final Leap. Suicide on the Golden Gate Bridge. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  6. Beauvois J.L. (1984). La psychologie quotidienne. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  7. Beck A.T., Kovacs M. & Weissman A. (1975). Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior: An Overview. JAMA, 234, 11: 1146-1149.
  8. Bem D.J. & Allen A. (1974). On predicting some of the people some of the time: The search for cross-situational consistencies in behavior. Psychological Review, 81, 6: 506-520.
  9. Benedetti E., Cerrai S. & Molinaro S. (2020). Gioco d’azzardo e lockdown: i risultati dello studio GAPS #iorestoacasa. Medicina delle Dipendenze, 10, 39: 55-56.
  10. Borgida E. & Nisbett R.E. (1977). The differential impact of abstract vs. concrete information on decisions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 3: 258-271.
  11. Brown J.H. (1979). Suicide in Britain. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 10: 1119-1124.
  12. Cantor N. & Mischel W. (1979). Prototypes in person perception. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 12: 3-52. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60258-0
  13. Chapman L.J. & Chapman J.P. (1967). Genesis of popular but erroneous psychodiagnostic observations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 3: 193-204.
  14. Clarke R. (1980). Situational crime prevention: Theory and practice. British Journal of Criminology, 20, 2: 136-147. DOI: 10.2307/2363669
  15. Clarke R.V. & Cornish D.B. (1985). Modeling offenders’ decisions: A framework for research and policy. Crime and Justice, 6: 147-185. DOI: 10.1086/449106
  16. Clarke R. & Mayhew P. (1988). The British gas suicide story and its criminological implications. Crime and Justice, 10: 79-116. DOI: 10.1086/449144
  17. Clarke R. & Mayhew P. (1989). Crime as opportunity: A note on domestic gas suicide in Britain and The Netherlands. British Journal of Criminology, 29, 1: 35-46.
  18. Cornish D.B. & Clarke R.V. (1987). Understanding crime displacement: An application of rational choice theory. Criminology, 25, 4: 933-947.
  19. Cornish D.B. & Clarke R.V. (1989). Crime specialisation, crime displacement and rational choice theory. In: Wegener H., Lösel F. & Haisch J., editors, Criminal Behavior and the Justice System. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989, chapter 7, pp. 103-117.
  20. D’Andrade R. G. (2009). Trait psychology and componential analysis. American Anthropologist, 67, 5: 215-228.
  21. Dunning D., Griffin D.W., Milojkovic J.D. & Ross L. (1990). The overconfidence effect in social prediction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 4: 568-581. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.4.568
  22. Durkheim E. (1897). Le Suicide: Étude de sociologie. Paris: Alcan (trad. it.: Il suicidio. Studio di sociologia. Milano: BUR, 2007).
  23. Epstein S. (1983). Aggregation and beyond: Some basic issues on the prediction of behavior. Journal of Personality, 51, 3: 360-392.
  24. Farberow N.L. & Simon M.D. (1969). Suicides in Los Angeles and Vienna: An intercultural study of two cities. Public Health Reports (1896-1970), 84, 5: 389. DOI: 10.2307/4593570
  25. Farmer R. & Rohde J. (1980). Effect of availability and acceptability of lethal instruments on suicide mortality. An Analysis of some international data. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 62, 5; 436-445.
  26. Fornero E. & Piccinin Fineschi I. (2020). Lockdown e uso di sostanze. Una ricerca esplorativa. Medicina delle Dipendenze, 10, 39: 33-39.
  27. Fox R. (1975). The suicide drop – Why? Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 95, 1: 9-13, 20. DOI: 10.1177/146642407509500105
  28. Gabor T. (1981). The crime displacement hypothesis: An empirical examination. Crime & Delinquency. 27, 3: 390-404. DOI: 10.1177/001112878102700306
  29. Gladwell M. (2019). Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don’t Know. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company (trad. it.: Il dilemma dello sconosciuto. Perché è così difficile capire chi non conosciamo. Milano: DeA Planeta Libri, 2020).
  30. Hay P. & Bornstein R.A. (1984). Failed suicide attempt by emission gas poisoning. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 4: 592-593.
  31. Heider F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley (trad. it.: Psicologia delle relazioni interpersonali. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1972).
  32. Hunter J.E. & Hunter R.F. (1984). Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 1: 72-98. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.96.1.72
  33. James W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Company (trad. it.: Princìpi di psicologia. Milano: Società Editrice Libraria, 1900; Milano: Principato, 1965).
  34. Jones E.E. & Davis K.E. (1965). From acts to dispositions. A theory of correspondent inferences. Advances in Experimental social psychology, 2: 219-266. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60107-0
  35. Jones E.E. & Harris V.A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3, 1: 1-24. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1031(67)90034-0
  36. Joule R.V. & Beauvois J.L. (2015). La soumission librement consentie. Comment amener les gens à faire librement ce qu’ils doivent faire? Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  37. Kahneman D. et al. (2019). Logiche della predizione [Contributi di Wilma Bucci, Mauricio Cortina, Gerhard W. Dammann, Diana D. Diamond, Morris N. Eagle, Kenneth A. Frank, Pier Francesco Galli, Daniel Kahneman, Danielle Knafo, Frank M. Lachmann, Joseph D. Lichtenberg, Paul Lippmann, Everett Waters, David L. Wolitzky, Rachel A. Wolitzky]. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, 53, 3: 461-480.
  38. Kaplan L.J. & Maher J.M. (1970). The economics of the numbers game. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 29, 4: 391-408.
  39. Kreitman N. (1976). The coal gas story: United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960-71. British Journal of Preventive & Social Medicine, 30, 2: 86-93.
  40. Kreitman N. & Platt S. (1984). Suicide, unemployment, and domestic gas detoxification in Britain. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 38, 1: 1-6.
  41. Kunda Z. & Nisbett R.E. (1986). The psychometrics of everyday life. Cognitive Psychology, 18, 2: 195-224. DOI: 10.1016/0010-0285(86)90012-5
  42. Lay C., Ziegler M., Hershfield L. & Miller D. (1974). The perception of situational consistency in behavior: Assessing the actor-observer bias. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 6, 4: 376-384.
  43. Lester D. & Murrell M.E. (1982). The preventive effect of strict gun control laws on suicide and homicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 12, 3: 131-140.
  44. Leventhal H., Singer R. & Jones S. (1965). Effects of fear and specificity of recommendation upon attitudes and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 1: 20-29.
  45. Lewin K. (1935). A Dynamic Theory of Personality: Selected Papers. New York: McGraw-Hill (trad. it.: Teoria dinamica della personalità. Firenze: Giunti, 1965).
  46. Lord C.G., Ross L. & Lepper M.R. (1979). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 11: 2098-2109. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.11.2098
  47. Mäkinen I. (1997). Are there social correlates to suicide? Social Science & Medicine, 44, 12: 1919-1929.
  48. Malleson A. (1973). Suicide Prevention – Myth or Mandate? British Journal of Psychiatry, 123, 576: 612-613.
  49. McCord J. (1978). A thirty-year follow-up of treatment effects. American Psychologist, 33, 3: 284-289. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.33.3.284
  50. Meehl P.E. (1954). Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  51. Miller M, Azrael D. & Hemenway D. (2006). Belief in the inevitability of suicide: Results from a national survey. Suicide Life-Threatening Behavior, 36, 1: 1-11.
  52. Mischel W. (2009). From Personality and Assessment (1968) to Personality Science, 2009. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 2: 282-290.
  53. Monson T.C. & Snyder M. (1977). Actors, observers, and the attribution process. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 1: 89-111. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1031(77)90016-6
  54. Nisbett R. & Borgida E. (1975). Attribution and the psychology of prediction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 5: 932-943. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.32.5.932
  55. Nisbett R.E., Caputo C., Legant P. & Marecek J. (1973). Behavior as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 2: 154-164.
  56. Nisbett R. & Wilson T. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychology Review, 84, 3: 231-259.
  57. Orr L.D. (1984). The effectiveness of automobile safety regulation: Evidence from the FARS data. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 12: 1384-1389.
  58. Pietromonaco P.R. & Nisbett R.E. (1982). Swimming upstream against the fundamental attribution error: Subjects’ weak generalizations from the Darley and Batson study. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 10, 1: 1-4.
  59. Reppetto T.A. (1976). Crime prevention and the displacement phenomenon. Crime & Delinquency, 22, 2: 166-177. DOI: 10.1177/001112877602200204
  60. Ross L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution process. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 10: 173-220. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60357-3
  61. Ross L.D., Amabile T.M. & Steinmetz, J.L. (1977). Social roles, social control, and biases in social-perception processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 7: 485-494. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.35.7.485
  62. Ross L. & Nisbett R.E. (1991). The Person and the Situation. Perspectives of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill (trad. it.: La persona e la situazione. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1998).
  63. Rotter J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80, 1: 1-28.
  64. Sainsbury P. & Jenkins J.S. (1982). The accuracy of officially reported suicide statistics for purposes of epidemiological research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 36, 1: 43-48.
  65. Seiden R.H. (1978). Where are they now? A follow-up study of suicide attempters from the Golden Gate Bridge. Suicide Life-Threatening Behavior, 8, 4: 203-216.
  66. Seiden R.H. & Spence M. (1983-1984). A tale of two bridges: Comparative suicide incidence on the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridges. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 14, 3: 201-209. DOI: 10.2190/23YL-FCM8-0MY5-2XYQ
  67. Shweder R.A. & D’Andrade R.G. (1979). Accurate reflection or systematic distortion? A reply to Block, Weiss, and Thorne. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 6: 1075-1084. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.6.1075
  68. Sisti D., Mann J.J. & Oquendo M.A. (2020). Toward a distinct mental disorder – Suicidal behavior. JAMA Psychiatry, 77, 7: 661-662.
  69. Tversky A. & Kahneman D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 4481: 453-458.
  70. Whitlock F.A. (1975). Suicide in Brisbane, 1956 to 1973. The drug‐death epidemic. Medical Journal of Australia, 24, 1: 737-737.
  71. Wilson T.D. (2003). Knowing when to ask: Introspection and the adaptive unconscious. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 9-10: 131-140.
  72. Wilson T.D., Hull J.G. & Johnson J. (1981). Awareness and self-perception: Verbal reports on internal states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1: 53-71. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.40.1.53

  • Folk psychiatry. La psichiatria fra immagine scientifica e psichiatria popolare Andrea Angelozzi, in PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE 3/2022 pp.431
    DOI: 10.3280/PU2022-003004
  • Intervento. La prevenzione del suicidio e l'accesso a metodi letali Maurizio Pompili, in PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE 2/2021 pp.265
    DOI: 10.3280/PU2021-002005
  • Problemi della previsione in psichiatria Andrea Angelozzi, in PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE 4/2021 pp.623
    DOI: 10.3280/PU2021-004005

Andrea Angelozzi, L’ipotesi dello spostamento nel suicidio: persona e situazione in psicopatologia in "PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE" 2/2021, pp 247-264, DOI: 10.3280/PU2021-002004