Louis Sander’s and Ed Tronick’s researches have introduced the systems theory into the psychoanalytic field, with their concepts of procedural behavior, SOC (States of Consciousness), DSC (Dual States of Consciousness) and DEC (Diadic Expansion of Consciousness). Are we confronted, in this way, with a new form of positivism, which reduces man to a machine and conceives the subject as completely submitted to necessity? To reply to this question, we are examining the thought of Edgar Morin, Kurt Gold- stein, Alois Riegl, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, showing how they are all agreed on an antimechanistic view of life and nature. To stress a continuity between man and nature does not necessarily mean to absorb the first term into the second. To strengthen this thesis, the concept of freedom is focused on. When freedom is not conceived as absolute, but as conditioned and limited, not as a "decision", but as a "letting it be", then it appears to be the other face of a conception that does not see any gaps among life, animal and man. On this basis, a new idea of the subject can be built, which is very different from the metaphysical one of modern philosophy.
Keywords: Psychoanalysis, systems theory, subject, life, freedom