A history of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders is briefly presented, beginning with the early conceptions of XIX century (Morel, Kraepelin, Bleuler, Schneider, etc.). Subsequently, a brief history of the therapeutic approaches to schizophrenia is reviewed. In this first part, biological approaches are presented, divided into four main developments: "sleep therapy", shock therapy (hypoglycemic shock due to insulin [Sakel], Metrazol [Pentamethylenetetrazole] shock with convulsions [von Meduna], electroshock [Cerletti]), psychosurgery (Burckhardt, Moniz, Freeman, etc.), and psychoactive medication (Clorpromazine, Reserpine, atypical antipsychotics, etc.). In the second and final part, which will be published in the next issue, the history of psychological treatments will be presented.
Keywords: Schizophrenia, dementia praecox, psychosis, history of psychiatry, therapy of schizophrenia