The influence of sustainable entrepreneurship culture on start-up expectations: A comparative analysis

Author/s Diego Matricano
Publishing Year 2017 Issue 2017/1 Language English
Pages 19 P. 71-89 File size 227 KB
DOI 10.3280/RISS2017-001006
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

This paper aims to test whether the culture of sustainable entrepreneurship affects the relationship between intellectual capital and start-up expectations in a different way from the culture of self-actualisation (Maslow theory) or of legitimacy. Through logistic regression models, the statistical results show that clear differences do exist. This result has a twofold impact. Policy makers interested in supporting sustainable entrepreneurship should be aware of the emerging differences in order to propose dedicated tools and actions. Scholars aiming to investigate sustainable entrepreneurship should focus their attention on the entrepreneurial dynamics taking place where that culture is widespread.

Keywords: Sustainable entrepreneurship culture, self-actualisation culture, legitimating culture, intellectual capital, start-up expectations.

  1. Ajzen I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50(2): 179-211.
  2. Aldrich H.E., Zimmer C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In: Aldrich H.E. (ed.). Population Perspective on Organizations. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upaliensis.
  3. Alvarez S.A., Barney J.B. (2007). Guest Editors’ Introduction. The entrepreneurial theory of the firm. Journal of Management Studies, 44(7): 1057-1063.
  4. Alvarez S.A., Barney J.B., Anderson P. (2013). Forming and exploiting opportunities: the implications of discovery and creation processes for entrepreneurial and organizational research. Organization Science, 24(1): 301-317.
  5. Baron R.A. (2004). The cognitive perspective: a valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship’s basic “why” questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2): 221-239.
  6. Batra S. (2012). Sustainable entrepreneurship and knowledge based development. Paper presented at 11th International Entrepreneurship Forum. Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, 3rd-6th September.
  7. Baumol W.J. (1996). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(1): 3-22.
  8. Bird B.J. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3): 442-453.
  9. Birley S. (1985). The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1): 107-117.
  10. Bontis N. (1996). There’s a price on your head: managing intellectual capital strategically. Business Quarterly, 60(4): 40-47.
  11. Bontis N. (1998). Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2): 63-76.
  12. Bontis N. (2001). Assessing knowledge assets: a review of the models used to measure intellectual capital. International Journal of Management Reviews, 3(1): 41-60.
  13. Brownson C.D. (2013). Fostering entrepreneurial culture: a conceptualization. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(31): 146-155.
  14. Carayannis E.G. (2008). Firm evolution dynamics: Towards sustainable entrepreneurship and robust competitiveness in the knowledge economy and society. International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, 1(3): 235-254.
  15. Casson M., Wadeson N. (2007). The discovery of opportunities: extending the economic theory of the entrepreneur. Small Business Economics, 28(4): 285-300.
  16. Choi D.Y., Gray E.R. (2008). The venture development processes of “sustainable” entrepreneurs. Management Research News, 31(8): 558-569.
  17. Cohen B. (2006). Sustainable valley entrepreneurial ecosystems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15(1): 1-14.
  18. Cohen B., Winn M.I. (2007). Market imperfections, opportunity and sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 22 (1): 29-49.
  19. Crals E., Vereeck L. (2005). The affordability of sustainable entrepreneurship certification for SMEs. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 12(2): 173-183.
  20. Dean T.J., McMullen J.S. (2007). Toward a theory of sustainable entrepreneurship: reducing environmental degradation through entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(1): 50-76.
  21. Dimov D. (2011). Grappling with the unbearable elusiveness of entrepreneurial opportunities. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35(1): 57-81.
  22. Fischer R.M., Comini G. (2012). Sustainable development: from responsibility to entrepreneurship. Revista de Administração, 47(3): 363-369.
  23. Galkina T. (2013), Entrepreneurial Networking: Intended and Unintended Processes. Vaasa (Finland): Hanken School of Economics.
  24. Georgescu-Roegen N. (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. Harvard University Press.
  25. Georgescu-Roegen N. (1975). Dynamic models and economic growth. World Development, 3(11-12): 765-783.
  26. Giannetti M., Simonov A. (2003). Does prestige matter more than profits? Evidence from entrepreneurial choice. Working Paper N. 4157. Stockholm: Stockholm School of Economics.
  27. Gibbs D. (2006). Sustainability entrepreneurs, ecopreneurs and the development of a sustainable economy. Greener Management International, 55: 63-78, autumn.
  28. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor – GEM (2016). “Report – Individual Global Level Data”, --available at: (accessed December 2016).
  29. Greve A., Salaff J.W. (2003). Social networks and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneur-ship: Theory and Practice, 28(1): 1-22.
  30. Griffiths M.D., Gundry L.K., Kickul J.R. (2013). The socio-political, economic, and cultural determinants of social entrepreneurship activity: An empirical examination. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(2): 341-357.
  31. Hall J.K., Daneke G.A., Lenox M.J. (2010). Sustainable development and entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5): 439-448.
  32. Hayton J.C. (2005). Competing in the new economy: the effect of intellectual capital on corporate entrepreneurship in high-technology new ventures. R&D Management, 35(2): 137-155.
  33. Musteen M., Ahsan M. (2013). Beyond cost: the role of intellectual capital in offshoring and innovation in young firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(2): 421-434.
  34. Hockerts K., Wüstenhagen R. (2010). Greening Goliaths versus emerging Davids – Theorizing about the role of incumbents and new entrants in sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5): 481-492.
  35. Holden E., Linnerud K., Banister D. (2014). Sustainable development: our common future revisited. Global Environmental Change, 26: 130-139.
  36. Hormiga E., Batista-Canino R.M., Sánchez-Medina A. (2011). The role of intellectual capital in the success of new ventures. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(1): 71-92.
  37. Johannisson B. (1988). Business formation: a network approach. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 4(3/4): 83-99.
  38. Katsikis I.N., Kyrgidou L.P. (2007). The concept of sustainable entrepreneurship: a conceptual framework and empirical analysis. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1: 1-6.
  39. Kibler E., Kautonen T. (2016). The moral legitimacy of entrepreneurs: An analysis of early-stage entrepreneurship across 26 countries. International Small Business journal, 34(1): 34-50.
  40. Klewitz J., Hansen E.G. (2014). Sustainability-oriented innovation of SMEs: a systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65: 57-75.
  41. Kolvereid L. (1996). Organisational employment versus self-employment: reasons for career choice intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 20(3): 23-31.
  42. Larson A., Starr J.A. (1993). A network model of organization formation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 17(2): 5-15.
  43. Lee S.H., Wong P.K. (2004). An exploratory study of technopreneurial intentions: a career anchor perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1): 7-28.
  44. Link A.N., Ruhm C.J. (2011). Public knowledge, private knowledge: the intellectual capital of entrepreneurs. Small Business Economics, 36(1): 1-14.
  45. Mack J., Pützschel J. (2014). The Influence of Contextual Factors on the Entrepreneurial Process. Mater Thesis presented at Umeå School of Business and Economics.
  46. Maslow A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4): 370-396.
  47. Masurel E. (2007). Why SMEs invest in environmental measures: sustainability evidence from small and medium-sized printing firms. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16(3): 190-201.
  48. Matricano D. (2015). Lo Studio dell’Imprenditorialità. Un approccio di indagine multidimensionale. Roma: Carocci.
  49. Matricano D. (2016). The impact of intellectual capital on start-up expectations. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 17(4): 654-674.
  50. McGrath R.G., MacMillan I. (2000). The Entrepreneurial Mindset. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  51. Mcmullen J.S., Dimov D. (2013). Time and the entrepreneurial journey: the problems and promise of studying entrepreneurship as a process. Journal of Management Studies, 50(8): 1481-512.
  52. Mcmullen J.S., Shepherd D.A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31(1): 132-152.
  53. Meek W.R., Pacheco D.F., York J.G. (2010). The impact of social norms on entrepreneurial action: Evidence from the environmental entrepreneurship context. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5): 493-509.
  54. Motomura O. (2006). Sustainable Entrepreneurship. Brazil: Amana-Key Development & Education. --Report availabe at
  55. Muñoz P., Dimov D. (2015). The call of the whole in understanding the development of sustainable ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(4): 632-654.
  56. North D.C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge (MA): Cambridge University Press.
  57. O'Neill Jr G.D., Hershauer J.C., Golden J.S. (2009). The Cultural Context of Sustainability Entrepreneurship. Greener Management International, 55: 33-46.
  58. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD (1960). Convention on the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 14th December, Paris.
  59. Parrish B.D. (2010). Sustainability-driven entrepreneurship: Principles of organization design. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5): 510-523.
  60. Peña I. (2002). Intellectual capital and business start-up success. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3(2): 180-198.
  61. Pinkse J., Groot K. (2015). Sustainable entrepreneurship and corporate political activity: Overcoming market barriers in the clean Energy sector. Entrepreneur-ship Theory and Practice, 39(3): 633-654.
  62. Plummer L.A., Haynie J.M., Godesiabois J. (2007). An essay on the origins of entrepreneurial opportunity. Small Business Economics, 28(4): 363-379.
  63. Rodgers C. (2010). Sustainable entrepreneurship in SMEs: a case study analysis. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(3): 125-132.
  64. Schaltegger S., Wagner M. (2011). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(4): 222-237.
  65. Shane S. (2003), A General Theory of Entrepreneurship. The Individual-Opportunity Nexus. Cheltenham (UK): Edward Elgar Publishing.
  66. Shane S. (2012). Reflections on the 2010 AMR decade award: delivering on the promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 37(1): 10-20.
  67. Shane S., Venkataraman S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy Management Review, 25(1): 217-226.
  68. Shaver K.G., Scott L.R. (1991). Person, process, and choice: the psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(2): 23-42.
  69. Shepherd D.A., Patzelt H. (2011). The new field of sustainable entrepreneurship: studying entrepreneurial action linking “what is to be sustained” with “what is to be developed”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1): 137-163.
  70. Shepherd D.A., Ettenson E., Crouch A. (2000). New venture strategy and profitability: a venture capitalist’s assessment. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6): 449-467.
  71. Short J.C., Ketchen D.J., Shook C.L., Ireland R.D. (2010). The concept of opportunity in entrepreneurship research: past accomplishment and future challenges. Journal of Management, 36(1): 40-65.
  72. Smith D.A., Lohrke F.T. (2008). Entrepreneurial network development: trusting in the process. Journal of Business Research, 61(4): 315-322.
  73. Soto-Acosta P., Cismaru D.M., Vătămănescu E.M., Ciochină R.S. (2016). Sustainable Entrepreneurship in SMEs: A Business Performance Perspective. Sustain-ability, 8(4): 342-353.
  74. Spence M., Ben Boubaker Gherib J., Ondoua Biwolé V. (2011). Sustainable entrepreneurship: is entrepreneurial will enough? A north-south comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(3): 335-367.
  75. Starr J.A., MacMillan I. (1990). Resource cooptation via social contracting: resource acquisition strategies for new ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 11(1): 79-92.
  76. Suchman M.C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of management review, 20(3): 571-610.
  77. Thornton P., Ribeiro-Soriano D., Urbano D. (2011). Socio-cultural factors and entrepreneurial activity: An overview. International Small Business Journal, 29(2): 105-118.
  78. Ucbasaran D., Westhead P., Wright M. (2006). The Habitual Entrepreneur. Aldershot (UK): Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
  79. Ucbasaran D., Westhead P., Wright M. and Binks M. (2003). Does Entrepreneurial Experience Influence Opportunity Identification? The Journal of Private Equity, 7(1): 7-14.
  80. Westhead P., Ucbasaran D., Wright M. (2005). Decisions, actions and performances: do novice, serial and portfolio entrepreneurs differ? Journal of Small Business Management, 43(4): 393-417.
  81. Wiklund J., Davidsson P., Audretsch D.B., Karlsson C. (2011). The future of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35(1): 1-9.
  82. World Commission on Environment and Development – WCED (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Diego Matricano, The influence of sustainable entrepreneurship culture on start-up expectations: A comparative analysis in "RIVISTA DI STUDI SULLA SOSTENIBILITA'" 1/2017, pp 71-89, DOI: 10.3280/RISS2017-001006