Cognitive-behavioural therapy of the pathological gambling disorder

Author/s Onofrio Casciani, Ornella De Luca
Publishing Year 2017 Issue 2017/3 Language Italian
Pages 22 P. 21-42 File size 137 KB
DOI 10.3280/PSOB2017-003002
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

In Italy, the Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD), categorized by DSM-5 as a pathological addiction, has reached alarming levels. For some time it has been quite clear that this disorder is the result of the intertwining of several variables: genetic, bio-temperamental, psychological-cognitive, and socio-environmental. The guidelines developed by countries who have long been concerned with this issue and the international literature consider the cognitive-behavioral approach the most effective (and indeed the most studied) for the treatment of PGD. Essential elements of this treatment include the motivational interview, psychoeducation, individual or group psychotherapy aimed at correcting erroneous beliefs on gambling and more generally in cognitive restructuring, social deployment skills and coping, a restructuring of the lifestyle system (up to that point based on gambling behavior), and finally the relapse prevention. Such treatment is intended to be supplemented with drug therapy, if necessary, with intervention on the family, possibly in collaboration with other spatial services.

Keywords: Gambling Disorder; Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy; Craving; Cognitive Distortions; Relapse Prevention.

  1. Abbott M. (2006) “Do EGMs and problem gambling go together like a horse and carriage?”, Gambling Research, 18: 7-38.
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1994) American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, Washington
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VA, USA
  4. Battersby M., Oakes J., Tolchard B., Forbes A., Pols R. (2008) “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Problem Gamblers”, in Zangeneh M., Blaszczynski A., Turner N.E. (eds.), In the Pursuit of Winning, Springer, Boston, MA. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-72173-6_1
  5. Beck A.T. (1963) “Thinking and depression: I. Idiosyncratic content and cognitive distortions”, Archives of General Psychiatry, 9: 324-333
  6. Beck A.T. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders, Meridian, New York Beck A.T., Wright F.D., Newman C.F., Liese B.S. (1993) Cognitive Therapy of Substance Abuse, The Guilford Press, New York
  7. Bergler E. (1974) Psicologia del giocatore, Newton Compton Italiana, Roma Blaszczynski A., McConaghy N. (1989) “Anxiety and/or depression in the pathogenesis of addictive gambling”, International Journal of the Addictions, 24: 337-350
  8. Blaszczynski A., Nower L. (2002) “A Pathways Model of Problem and Pathological Gambling”, Addiction, 97: 487-99.
  9. Bowen S., Chawla N., Collins S.E. et al. (2009) “Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance use disorders: a pilot efficacy trial”, Subst. Abus., 30(4): 295-305. DOI: 10.1080/0889707090325008
  10. Bujold A., Ladouceur R., Sylvain C., Boisvert J.M. (1994) “Treatment of pathological gamblers: an experimental study”, Journal of Behaviour Therapy-Exp. Psychiatry, 25(4): 275-82. DOI: 10.1016/0005-7916(94)90035-
  11. Cavedini P., Riboldi G., Keller R., D’Annucci A., Bellodi L. (2002) “Frontal lobe dysfunction in pathological gambling patients”, Biological Psychiatry, 51 (4): 334-341. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01227-
  12. Clark L. (2010) “Decision-making during gambling: an integration of cognitive And psychobiological approaches”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 365: 319-330.
  13. Coventry K.R., Brown R., Jain F. (1993) “Sensation seeking, gambling and gambling Addictions”, Addiction, 88: 541-554. Research Report.
  14. Dion J., Cantinotti M., Ross A., Collin-Vézina D. (2015) “Sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples”, Child Abuse Negl., 44: 56-65.
  15. Dion J., Collin-Vézina D., De La Sablonnière M., Philippe-Labbé M.P. Giffard T. (2010) “An exploration of the connection between child sexual abuse and gambling in aboriginal communities”, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8 (2): 174-189.
  16. Dow Schull N. (2015) Architetture dell’azzardo. Progettare il gioco, costruire la dipendenza, Luca Sossella Edizioni, Bologna Echeburua E., Baez C., Fernandez-Montalvo J. (1996) “Comparative effectiveness of three therapeutic modalities in psychological treatment of pathological gambling: long term outcome”, Behavioural and cognitive Psycotherapy, 24: 51-72.
  17. Ellis A. (1962) Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, Stuar, New York Emond M.S., Marmurek H.H.C. (2010) “Gambling related cognitions mediate the association between thinking style and problem gambling severity”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 26 (2): 257-267.
  18. Fortune E.E., Goodie S. (2012) “Cognitive Distortions as a Component and Treatment Focus of Pathological Gambling: A Review”, Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 26, 2: 298-310.
  19. Gaboury A., Ladouceur R. (1989) “Erroneous perceptions and gambling”, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4: 411-420
  20. Griffith M. (2005) “A component model of addiction within a biopsychosocial freamework”, Journal of Substance Use, 10: 191-197. DOI: 10.1080/1465989050011435
  21. Guerreschi C. (2000) Giocati dal gioco. Quando il divertimento diventa una malattia: il gioco d’azzardo patologico, San Paolo Edizioni, Cinisello Balsamo (MI)
  22. Gunter R.W., Bodner G.E. (2008) “How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: Support for a working memory account”, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46: 913-931.
  23. Gupta R., Derevensky J., Marget N. (2004) “Coping strategies employed by adolescents with gambling problems”, Child and Adolescent Mental Healt, 9(3): 115-120.
  24. Hodgins D.C., El-Guebaly N. (2000) “Natural and treatment-assisted recovery from gambling problems: A comparison of resolved and active gamblers”, Addiction, 95: 777-789.
  25. Ladd G.T., Petry N.M. (2002) “Disordered gambling among university-based medical and dental patients: A focus on Internet gambling”, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(1): 76-79. DOI: 10.1037//0893-164X.16.1.7
  26. Ladouceur R. (2004b) “Perceptions among pathological and non pathological gamblers”, Addictive Behaviors, 29: 555-565.
  27. Ladouceur R., Sevigny S. (2003) “Interactive messages on video lottery terminals and persistence in gambling”, Journal of the National Association for Gambling Studies, 15: 45-50.
  28. Ladouceur R., Sylvain C., Boutin C., Lachance S., Doucet C., Leblond J., Jacques C. (2001) “Cognitive treatment of pathological gambling”, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189: 766-773. DOI: 10.1097/00005053-200111000-000
  29. Ladouceur R., Sylvain C., Boutin C., Doucet C., Leblond J. (2003) “Group therapy for pathological gamblers: a cognitive approach”, Behavior Research and Therapy, 41, 5: 587-596. DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00036-
  30. Ledgerwood D.M., Petry N.M. (2005) “Current trends and future directions in psychosocial treatments for pathological gambling”, Psychological Science, 14(2): 89-94. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.21007-
  31. Lesieur H.R., Blume S.B. (1987) “The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers”, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1.
  32. Kalivas P.W., O’Brien C. (2008) “Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity”, Neuropsychopharmacology, 33: 166-180.
  33. Korn D.A., Shaffer H.J. (2004) Massachusetts Department of Public Health’s Practice Guidelines for Treating Gambling-Related Problems: An Evidence-Based Treatment Guide for Clinicians, Developed by the Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling,
  34. McConaghy N. (1991) “A pathological or a compulsive gambler”, Journal of GamblingStudies, 7: 55-64. DOI: 10.1007/BF0101976
  35. Miller N.V., Currie S.R. (2008) “A Canadian population level analysis of the roles of irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices as correlates of gambling intensity and pathological gambling”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 24: 257-274.
  36. Miller W.R., Rollnick S. (1994) Il Colloquio Motivazionale, Erikson, Trento Ministero della Salute, CCM, Dipendenze Comportamentali (2012) Gioco d’azzardo patologico: Progetto Sperimentale Nazionale di Sorveglianza e Coordinamento/monitoraggio degli interventi, Regione Piemonte
  37. Myrseth H., Brunborg G.S., Eidem M. (2010) “Differences in cognitive distortions between pathological and non-pathological gamblers with preferences for chance or skill games”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 26 (4): 561-569.
  38. Moran E. (1970) “Varieties of pathological gambling”, British Journal of Psychiatry, 116(535): 593-597.
  39. Nower L., Blaszczynski A. (2017) “Development and validation of the Gambling Pathways Questionnaire (GPQ)”, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 31(1): 95.
  40. Pallesen S., Mitsem M., Kvale G., Johnsen B.H., Molde H. (2005) “Outcome of psychological treatments of pathological gambling: a review and metaanalysis”, Addiction, 100(10): 1412-22.
  41. Peele S. (2009) “L’Amerique en guerre contre l’addiction”, Psychotropes, 15, 4: 27-40. Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues: eGambling [On-line serial], Issue 3
  42. Perilli M.C. (2015) Giocati dall’azzardo. Mafie, illusioni e nuove povertà, Ed. Sensibili alle foglie, Milano
  43. Petry N.M. (2005) Pathological Gambling: Etiology, Comorbidity, and Treatment, American Psychological Association Press, Washington, DC. DOI: 10.1037/10894-00
  44. Petry N.M., Ammerman Y., Bohl J., Doersch A., Gay H., Kadden R., Molina C., Steinberg K. (2006) “Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 3: 555-567. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.55
  45. Petry N.M., Ginley M.K., Rash C.J. (2017) “A Systematic Review of Treatments for Problem Gambling”, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.
  46. Potenza M.N. (2013) “How central is dopamine to pathological gambling or gambling disorder?”, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscienze, 7: 206. Published online Dec 23, 2013.
  47. Productivity Commission (2010) Gambling, Report n. 50, Canberra.
  48. Savron G., Pitti P., De Luca R. (2001) “Psicopatologia e gioco d’azzardo: Uno studio preliminare su un campione di Giocatori d’Azzardo Patologici”, Rivista di Psichiatria, 36 (1): 14-21
  49. Schultz W., Tremblay L., Hollerman J.R. (2003) “Changes in behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum during learning”, Trends in Neurosciences, 26: 321-328. DOI: 10.1016/S0166-2236(03)00122-
  50. Serpelloni G. (2013) Gioco d’azzardo problematico e patologico: inquadramento generale, meccanismi fisiopatologici, vulnerabilità, evidenze scientifiche per la prevenzione, cura e riabilitazione. Manuale per i Dipartimenti delle Dipendenze, Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga, Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, Roma
  51. Shaffer H.J. (1996) “Understanding the means and objects of addiction: Technology, the Internet, and gambling”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4): 461-469. DOI: 10.1007/BF0153918
  52. Shaffer H., Gambino B. (1989) “The epistemology of addictive disease: gambling as a predicament”, Journal of Gambling Behavior, 3: 211-229. DOI: 10.1007/BF0102438
  53. Shaffer H.J., LaPlante D.A., LaBrie R.A., Kidman R.C., Donato A.N., Stanton M.V. (2004) “Toward a syndrome model of addiction: multiple expressions, common etiology”, Harv. Rev. Psychiatry, 12: 367-74. DOI: 10.1080/1067322049090570
  54. Sharpe L. (2004) “A reformulated cognitive-behavioural model of problem gambling. A biopsychosocial perspective”, Clinical Psychology Review, 22: 1-25. DOI: 10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00087-
  55. Slutske W.E. (2006) “Natural Recovery and Treatment-Seeking in Pathological Gambling: Results of Two U.S. National Surveys”, American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(2): 297-302
  56. Suurvali H., Hodgins D., Toneatto T., Cunningham J. (2008) “Treatment seeking among Ontario problem gamblers: results of a population survey”, Psychiatric Services, 59(11): 1343-1346.
  57. Sylvain C., Ladouceur R., Boisvert J.M. (1997) “Cognitive and Behavioral Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Controlled Study”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65: 727-732. DOI: 10.1037//0022-006X.65.5.72
  58. Tavares H., Zilberman M.L., Guebaly N. (2003) “Are there cognitive and behavioural approaches specific to the treatment of pathological gambling?”, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(1): 22-7. DOI: 10.1177/07067437030480010
  59. Toneatto T., Blitz-Miller T., Calderwood K., Dragonetti R., Tsanos A. (1997) “Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 13: 253-266. DOI: 10.1023/A:102498330042
  60. Toneatto T., Ladouceur R. (2003) “The treatment of pathological gambling: A critical review of the literature”, Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 17: 284-292. DOI: 10.1037/0893-164X.17.4.28
  61. Tversky A., Kahneman D. (1974) “Science Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases”, Science, 185 (4157): 1124-1131.
  62. Witkiewitz K., Lustyk M.K., Bowen S. (2012) “Re-Training the Addicted Brain: A Review of Hypothesized Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention”, Psychol. Addict. Behav., 27 (2): 351-365. Published online 2012 Jul 9. DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2014.89184
  63. WHO (2007) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision

Onofrio Casciani, Ornella De Luca, La terapia cognitivo-comportamentale del disturbo da gioco d’azzardo (DGA) in "PSICOBIETTIVO" 3/2017, pp 21-42, DOI: 10.3280/PSOB2017-003002