Reflection on the perfectionism diagnosis in the developmental age

Author/s Cristiana Patrizi, Valeria Semeraro, Maria Pontillo, Rosaria Monfregola, Lorenza Isola
Publishing Year 2019 Issue 2018/43 Language Italian
Pages 19 P. 97-115 File size 107 KB
DOI 10.3280/QPC2018-043006
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

There is a growing interest in the research on perfectionism in the developmental age, also because its relationship with various forms of discomfort is more and more highlighted in children and adolescents. During the initial stages of therapy, it can be useful to investigate the presence of perfectionism and to discriminate if it is a form of perfectionism that maintains its adaptive characteristics or, on the contrary, it is a clinical or maladaptive perfectionism. With this in mind, the use on an Italian sample of the CAPS questionnaire "The Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale" (Flett e Hewitt, 1990) was examined. CAPS is one of the most used tools in research to evaluate perfectionism in children and adolescents and has been tested in various cultures with both clinical and non-clinical samples. The preliminary data of a research on a large non-clinical sample composed of children and adolescent aged between 9 and 18 will be analyzed here; this sample has been identified in schools in the area of Rome and its province. The reliability of the CAPS instrument and the association between observed data and symptoms of anxiety and depression has been verified.

Keywords: Perfectionism, CAPS, developmental psychopathology.

  1. AbdulKader F.A., Eissa M.A. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale in a sample of Egyptian adolescents. Islamic Association for Human Cognition Magazine, 1: 1-7.
  2. Accordino D.B., Accordino M.P., Slaney R.B. (2000), An investigation of perfectionism, mental health, achievement, and achievement motivation in adolescents. Psychol. Schs., 37: 535-545.
  3. Affrunti N.W., Woodruff-Borden J. (2014). Perfectionism in pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(3): 299-317.
  4. Argus G., Thompson M. (2008). Perceived social problem solving, perfectionism, and mindful awareness in clinical depression: an exploratory study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32: 745-757.
  5. Ashby J.S., Rice K.G. (2002). Perfectionism, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Self-Esteem: A Structural Equations Analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80: 197-203.
  6. Bardone-Cone A.M., Wonderlich S.A., Frost R.O., Bulik C.M., Mitchell J.E., Uppala S., Simonich H. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(3): 384-405
  7. Bento C., Pereira A.T., Saraiva J.M., Macedo A. (2014). Escala de perfecionismo de criancas e adolescentes: validacao em adolescentes portugueses. Psicologia: Reflexao & Critica, 27(2): 228-233. DOI: 10.1590/1678-7153.201427203
  8. Bieling P.J., Israeli A.L., Antony M.M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad or both? Examing models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 36: 1373-1385. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00235-
  9. Castro J., Gila A., Gual P., Lahortiga F., Saura B., Toro J. (2004). Perfectionism dimensions in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35: 392-398.
  10. Castro-Fornieles, J., Gual, P., Lahortiga, F., Gila, A., Casulà, V., Fuhrmann, C., Imirizaldu M., Saura B., Martínez E., Toro J. (2007). Self-oriented perfectionism in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40: 562-568.
  11. Chang E.C. (2003). On the perfectibility of the individual: Going beyond the dialectic of good versus evil. In: Chang E.C., Sanna L.J. (eds.), Virtue, vice, and personality: The complexity of behavior. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 125-144.
  12. Chang E.C. (2000). Perfectionism as a predictor of positive and negative psychological outcomes: Examining a mediation model in younger and older adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47: 18-26. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.47.1.1
  13. Chik H.M., Whittal M.L., O’Neill M.L. (2008). Perfectionism and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32: 676-688.
  14. Coren S.A., Luthar S.S. (2014). Pursuing perfection: Distress and interpersonal functioning among adolescent boys in single-sex and co-educational independent schools. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9): 931-946.
  15. Curran T., Hill A.P. (2017). Perfectionism Is Increasing Over Time: A Meta- Analysis of Birth Cohort Differences From 1989 to 2016. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication.
  16. Damian L.E., Stoeber J., Negru O., Baban A. (2014). Perfectionism and achievement goal orientations in adolescent school students. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9): 960-971.
  17. Donaldson D., Spirito A., Farnett E. (2000). The role of perfectionism and depressive cognitions in understanding the hopelessness experienced by adolescent suicide attempters. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31: 99-111. DOI: 10.1023/A:100197862533
  18. Enns M.W., Cox B.J. (2002). The nature and assessment of perfectionism: A critical analysis. In: Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L. (eds.), Perfectionism. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 33-62.
  19. Essau C.A., Conradt J., Sasagawa S., Ollendick T.H. (2012). Prevention of anxiety symptoms in children: Results from a universal school-based trial. Behavior Therapy, 43: 450-464.
  20. Essau C.A., Leung P.W.L., Conradt J., Cheng H., Wong T. (2008). Anxiety symptomsin Chinese and German adolescents: their relationship with early learning experiences, perfectionism and learning motivation. Depression and Anxiety, 25: 801-810.
  21. Filippello P., Sorrenti L., Buzzai C., Costa S. (2016). L’Almost Perfect Scale-Revised: un contributo all’adattamento italiano. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, XLIII, 4: 911-930. DOI: 10.1421/8558
  22. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L., Besser A., Su C., Vaillancourt T., Boucher D., Munro Y., Davidson L.A., Gale O. (2016) The Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: Development, Psychometric Properties, and Associations With Stress, Distress, and Psychiatric Symptoms. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(7): 634-652. DOI: 10.1177/073428291665138
  23. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L., Cheng W.M.W. (2008). Perfectionism, distress and irrational beliefs in high school students: Analyses with an abbreviated survey of personal beliefs for adolescents. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26: 194-205.
  24. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L. (2006). Positive Versus Negative Perfectionism in Psychopathology: A Comment on Slade and Owens’s Dual Process Model. Behaviour Modification, 30, 4: 472-495. DOI: 10.1177/014544550628802
  25. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L. (2002). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In: Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L. (eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp. 5-31.
  26. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L., Oliver J.M., Macdonald S. (2002). Perfectionism in children and their parents: A developmental analysis. In Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L. (eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, pp. 89-132.
  27. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L., Shapiro B., Rayman J. (2001). Perfectionism, beliefs, and adjustment in dating relationships. Current Psychology, 20(4): 289-311.
  28. Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L., Boucher D.J., Davidson L.A., Munro Y. (2000). The Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: Development, Validation, and Association with Adjustment. Unpublished manuscript.
  29. Frost R.O., Di Bartolo P.M. (2002). Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. In: Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L., Perfectionism. Theory, research, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  30. Frost R.O., Marten P.A., Lahart C., Rosenblate R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 14: 449-468. DOI: 10.1007/BF0117296
  31. Gaudreau P., Verner-Filion J. (2012). Dispositional perfectionism and wellbeing: A test of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism in the sport domain. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 1: 29-43.
  32. Gaudreau P., Thompson A. (2010). Testing a 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectio-nism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48: 532-537.
  33. Grzegorek J.L., Slaney R.B., Franze S., Rice K.R. (2004). Self-criticism, dependency, self-esteem, and grade point average satisfaction among clusters of perfectionists and nonperfectionists. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51: 192-200. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.51.2.19
  34. Hankin B.L., Robertse J., Gotlib I.H. (1997). Elevated self-standards and emotional distress during adolescence: Emotional specificity and gender differences. Co-gnitive Therapy and Research, 29: 663-679. DOI: 10.1023/A:102180830804
  35. Hewitt P.L., Caelian C.F., Flett G.L., Sherry S.B., Collins L., Flynn C.A. (2002). Perfectionism in children: Associations with depression, anxiety and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 32: 1049-1061. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00109-
  36. Hewitt P.L., Newton J., Flett G.L., Callander L. (1997). Perfectionism and suicide ideation in adolescent psychiatric patients. Journal of Abnormal Child Psycho-logy, 25: 95-101. DOI: 10.1023/A:102572332718
  37. Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 60: 456-470. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.60.3.45
  38. Huggins L., Davis M.C., Rooney R., Kane R. (2008). Socially prescribed and self-oriented perfectionism as predictiors of depressive diagnosis in preadolescents. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 18: 182-194.
  39. Hunter E.C., O’Connor R.C. (2003). Hopelessness and future thinking in parasuicide: The role of perfectionism. British Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106: 221-229. DOI: 10.1348/01446650332252890
  40. Jacobs R.H., Silva S.G., Reinecke M.A., Curry J.F., Ginsburg G.S., Kratochvil C.J., March J.S. (2009). Dysfunctional attitudes scale perfectionism: A predictor and partial mediator of acute treatment outcome among clinically depressed adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(6): 803-813. DOI: 10.1080/1537441090325903
  41. Kenney-Benson G.A., Pomerantz E.M. (2005). The role of motrhers’ use of control in children’s perfectionism: Implications for the development of children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality, 73: 23-46.
  42. Kottman T., Ashby J. (2000). Perfectionistic children and adolescents: Implications for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 3: 182-188.
  43. Limburg K., Watson H.J., Hagger M.S., Egan S.J. (2017). The relationship between perfectionism and psychopathology: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 10: 1301-1326.
  44. Kovacs M. (1981). CDI Children’s Depression Inventory, Questionario di autovalutazione, adattamento italiano a cura di Caruffo M., Cerutti R., Lucarelli L., Mayer R. (1988). Firenze: O.S. Organizzazzioni speciali.
  45. Leenaars L., Lester D. (2006). Perfectionism, Depression, and Academic Performance. Psychological Reports, 99, 3: 941-942. DOI: 10.2466/PR0.99.3.941-94
  46. Lombardo C., Violani C. (2011). Quando perfetto non è abbastanza. Conseguenze negative del perfezionismo. Milano: LED Edizioni Universitarie.
  47. Lundh L.-G., Öst L.-G. (2001). Attentional bias, self-consciousness and perfectionism in social phobia before and after cognitive-behaviour therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 30: 4-16. DOI: 10.1080/02845710130014042
  48. March J., Parker J., Sullivan K., Stallings P., Conners K. (1997). The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 4: 554-565. DOI: 10.1097/00004583-199704000-0001
  49. McCreary B., Joiner T.E., Schmidt N.B., Ialongo N.S. (2004). The structure and correlates of perfectionism in African American children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33: 313-324.
  50. McNulty J.P., Fincham F.D. (2012). Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being. American Psychologist, 67: 101-110.
  51. Mitchell J. H., Newall C., Broeren S., Hudson J.L. (2013). The role of perfectionism in cognitive behaviour therapy outcomes for clinically anxious children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51: 547-554.
  52. Mobley M., Slaney R.B., Rice K.G. (2005). Cultural validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised for African American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52: 629-639. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.52.4.62
  53. Moretz M.W., McKay D. (2009). The role of perfectionism in obsessive-complulsive symptoms: “Not Jost Right” experiences and checking compulsions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23: 640-644.
  54. Nakano K. (2009). Perfectionism, self-efficacy, and depression: preliminary analysis of the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale Revised. Psychological Reports, 104: 896-908. DOI: 10.2466/PR0.104.3.896-90
  55. Nobel R., Manassis K., Wilansky-Traynor P. (2012). The role of perfectionism in relation to an intervention to reduce anxious and depressive symptoms in children. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy, 30: 77-90.
  56. Nock M.K., Prinstein M.J. (2005). Contextual Features and Behavioral Functions of Self-Mutilation Among Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1): 140-6. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.1.140
  57. O’Connor R.C., Dixon D., Rasmussen S. (2009). The structure and temporal stability of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Psychological Assessment, 21: 437-443.
  58. Parker W.D. (2002). Perfectionism and adjustment in gifted children. In: Flett G.L., Flett P.L. (eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 133-148.
  59. Rhéaume J., Ladouceur R., Freeston M.H. (2000). The prediction of obsessive– compulsive tendencies. Does perfectionism play a significant role? Personality and Individual Differences, 28: 583-592. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00121-X
  60. Rice K.G., Ashby J.S. (2007). An efficient method for classifying perfectionists. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54: 72-85. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.54.1.7
  61. Rice K.G., Dellwo J.P. (2002). Perfectionism and self-development: Implications for college adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80: 188-196.
  62. Rice K.G., Leever B.A., Noggle C.A., Lapsley D.K. (2007). Perfectionism and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Psychology in the Schools, 44(2): 139-156.
  63. Rice K.G., Vergara D.T., Aldea M.A. (2005). Cognitive affective mediator of perfectionism and college student adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 40: 463-473.
  64. Sassaroli S., Ruggiero G.M. (2005). The Role of Stress in the Association between Low Self-Esteem, Perfectionism, and Worry, and Eating Disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37(2): 135-141.
  65. Shafran R., Cooper Z., Fairburn C.G. (2002). Clinical Perfectionism: A cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40: 773-791. DOI: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00059-6
  66. Slaney R.B., Rice K.G., Mobley M., Trippi J., Ashby J. (2001). The Revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34: 130-145.
  67. Soenens B., Luyckx K., Vansteenkiste M., Luyten P., Duriez B., Groossens L. (2008). Maladaptive perfectionism as an intervening variable between psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms: A three-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology, 22: 465-474. DOI: 10.1037/0893-3200.22.3.46
  68. Soenens B., Elliot A.J., Goossens L., Vansteenkiste M., Luyten P., Duriez B. (2005). The intergenerazionale trasmission of perfectionism: Parents’ psychological control as an intervening variable. Journal of Family Psychology, 19: 358-366. DOI: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.3.35
  69. Stöeber J., Eismann U. (2007). Perfectionism in young musicians: Relations with motivation, effort, achievement, and distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 8: 2182-2192.
  70. Stöeber J., Otto K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenge. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10: 295-319.
  71. Stornelli D., Flett G.L., Hewitt P.L. (2009). Perfectionism, achievement and affect in children: A comparison of students from gite, arts and regular programs. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 24: 267-283. DOI: 10.1177/0829573509342392
  72. Stumpf H., Parker W.D. (2000). A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 28: 837-852. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00141-
  73. Suddarth B.H., Slaney R.B. (2001). An investigation of the dimensions of perfectionism in college students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 34: 157-165.

Cristiana Patrizi, Valeria Semeraro, Maria Pontillo, Rosaria Monfregola, Lorenza Isola, Riflessione sulla diagnosi del perfezionismo in età evolutiva in "QUADERNI DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA" 43/2018, pp 97-115, DOI: 10.3280/QPC2018-043006