Main characteristics, evolution and geo-economic importance of Japanese aid to China (1979-2008). General framework and analysis of Dalian and Shanghai cases

Author/s Stefano Soriani, Pietro Mazzaferro
Publishing Year 2019 Issue 2019/1 Language Italian
Pages 29 P. 21-49 File size 201 KB
DOI 10.3280/RGI2019-001002
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

This article considers the main characteristics and the evolution of Japanese programs of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in China in the period 1979-2008. These programs strongly contributed to establish an attractive business environment for Japanese multinational firms. ODA programs played an evident enabling role for Japanese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), particularly in the transport, distribution and logistics sectors, and in the automotive one. ODA programs and FDI have produced win-win outcomes, with benefits for both the Japanese industrial system, and for China, thanks to important contribution they gave to the economic development of many coastal regions. With the entry of China into the WTO in 2001, nature and logic of both ODA programs and FDI changed: ODA have been re-oriented mainly towards social infrastructures, while FDI have increasingly turned to exploit the potential of Chinese domestic market. The cases of the ports of Dalian and Shanghai confirm the above elements. In the 1980s and 1990s, aid favored the development of port and transport infrastructures, while FDI contributed to regional development and integration processes, thanks to the creation of manufacturing and export-oriented platforms. Since the 2000s, aid was directed towards social infrastructure (mainly environment and human resources), while investments started to focus more and more on the internal market. In 2008, ODA programs were profoundly downsized by the Japanese government, as a consequence of the changing role of China in the regional and global context. In any case, Japanese ODA programs and FDI played a key role in fostering regional economic integration processes; moreover, they have contributed to mitigate the political and diplomatic tensions that characterized China-Japan relations in past decades

Keywords: Official Development Assistance, Japan, China, ports, Shanghai, Dalian

  1. under political uncertainty. East Asia Policy, 1(1): 50-59. --
  2. Yamamoto A., Kyoko K. (2006). Whither Japanese foreign aid: review essay of Japan’s foreign aid: old continuities and new directions. Social Science Japan Journal, 9(2): 275-282.
  3. Morrison K. (2005). The World Bank, Japan and aid effectiveness. In: Arase D., a cura di, Japan’s foreign aid: old continuities and new directions. New York: Routledge.
  4. Alacevich M. (2009). The Political economy of the World Bank. The Early years. Washington D.C.: Stanford University Press.
  5. Zhou H., Jun Z., Min Z. (2007). Foreign aid to China. Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe.
  6. Wang K. (2005). The strategic thinking of Japanese ODA to China, and its influence on the
  7. Aoki N. (2001). Japan’s foreign aid to China. Tokyo: Shoudensha.
  8. Araki M. (2007). Japan’s Official Development Assistance: the Japan ODA model that began life in South-East Asia. Asia-Pacific Review, 14(2): 17-29. DOI: 10.1080/13439000701733218
  9. Arase D. (2005). Japan’s and the United States’ bilateral ODA programs. In: Arase D., a cura di, Japan’s foreign aid: old continuities and new directions. New York: Routledge.
  10. Ball P. (2017). The Water Kingdom. The secret history of China. Chicago: CUP.
  11. Blaise S. (2005). On the link between Japanese ODA and FDI in China: a microeconomic evaluation using conditional logit analysis. Applied Economics, 37(1): 51-55. DOI: 10.1080/0003684042000281534
  12. Cai L. (2010). A win-win model: research on the Japanese ODA to Shanghai. Anhui: Hefei Gongye Daxue Chubanshe.
  13. Caroli R., Gatti G. (2017). Storia del Giappone. Bari-Roma: Laterza.
  14. Cassidy J.F. (2002). Japanese Direct Investment in China: locational determinants and characteristics. New York: Routledge.
  15. Cheng S. (2012). Preference heterogeneity and industrial location: location choices of Japanese FDI in China. Saarbrucken: AV Akademikerverlag GmbH & Co. KG.
  16. Concorde Europe (European Ngo Confederation for Relief and Development) (2017). On the Role of the Private Sector in Development. Brussels: Concorde Europe.
  17. Costa A., Lazzerini I., Soriani S. (2011). Greening China: l’evoluzione recente della politica ambientale nella Repubblica Popolare Cinese. Riv. Geogr. Ital., 118: 1-31.
  18. Drifte R. (2006). The ending of Japan’s ODA loans programme to China: all’s well that ends well. Asia-Pacific Review, 13(1): 94-117. DOI: 10.1080/13439000600697704
  19. Feng S. (2005). Japanese aid to China: a comparison of ODA from Japan and Europe. In: Arase D., a cura di, Japan’s foreign aid: old continuities and new directions. New York: Routledge.
  20. Guo S. (2000). Japan’s Foreign Direct Investments to China. Tokyo: Meitoku Shuppansha.
  21. Ghisella A. e Fardella E. (2017). Cina. Il Mediterraneo nelle nuove Vie della Seta. ISPI, n. 132, maggio.
  22. Hirono R. (1997). Japan’s environmental cooperation with China during the last two decades. Asia-Pacific Review, 14(2): 1-16. DOI: 10.1080/13439000701733226
  23. Ihara R., Roki I. (2007). Attracting Foreign Investment: optimal ODA policy with trade liberalization. The Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, 16(2): 193-211. DOI: 10.1080/09638190701325524
  24. Jerve A.M., Yasutami S., Hansen A.S. (2008). Aid relationships in Asia: exploring ownership in Japanese and Nordic aid. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  25. JBIC (Japan Bank for International Cooperation) (2012). Collection of data on the investment environment in China. Tokyo: JBIC.
  26. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) (2003). Meta-analysis of ex-post evaluation reports by country and sector: country review report of China. Tokyo: JICA.
  27. Id. (2012). Annual Report 2012. Tokyo: JICA. --
  28. Jin X. (2000). Japanese Government’s Official Development Assistance. Beijing: Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe.
  29. Kagia R. (2005). Balancing the Development agenda: the transformation of the World Bank under James. D. Wolferson, 1995-2005. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
  30. Kamal-Chaoui L., Leman E., Rufei Z (2009). Urban Trends and Policy in China, Paris, OECD Regional Development Papers, 1. DOI: 10.1787/225205036417
  31. Khanna P. (2016). Connectography. Mapping the future of global civilization. New York: Random House (trad. it.: Connectography. Le mappe del futuro ordine mondiale. Roma: Fazi editore, 2016).
  32. King K., McGrath S. (2004). Knowledge for development? Comparing British, Japanese, Swedish and World Bank aid. London & New York: Zed Books.
  33. Kitano N. (2004). Japanese contribution in supporting China’s reforms: a study based on ODA loans. China Report, 40(4): 61-88. DOI: 10.1177/000944550404000409
  34. Kusano A. (2007). Why Japan help Developing Countries? Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha.
  35. Lalima V. (2006). Japan’s policy towards East and South-East Asia: trends in Re-Asianization. International Studies, 43(1): 33-49. DOI: 10.1177/002088170504300102
  36. Lin X. (2007). Japan’s ODA and the Sino-Japanese relations. Beijing: Shijie Zhishi Chubanshe.
  37. Lincoln E.J. (2004). East Asian Economic Regionalism. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
  38. Maswood J.S., Stockwin J.A.A. (2001). Japan and East Asian Regionalism. New York: Routledge.
  39. Mawdsley E., Savage L., Kim S.-M. (2014). A ‘post-aid world’? Paradigm shift in foreign aid and development cooperation at the 2011 Busan High Level Forum. Geographical Journal, 180(1): 27-38.
  40. MOFA (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) (1994). History of official development assistance. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  41. Id. (1995). Basic approaches of Japan’s ODA: philosophy and principles. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  42. Id. (2001). Economic Cooperation Program for China. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  43. Id. (2003). Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  44. Id. (2010a). 2010 ODA White Paper: Reform of Jica. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  45. Id. (2010b). ODA Review: summary of the final report. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  46. Id. (2015). Outline of the Country Assistance Policies. Tokyo: MOFA. --
  47. Narasimha M. (1991). Japan and China in the nineties: the bumpy road to consolidation of ties. China Report, 27(4): 275-297. DOI: 10.1177/000944559102700402
  48. Nishigaki A., Shimomura Y. (1999). The economics of development assistance: Japan’s Official Development Assistance program in a symbiotic world. Tokyo: LTCB International Library Foundation.
  49. Nuscheler F., Warkentin B. (2000). From International Cooperation to Development Policy? Reform and reorientation of Japan’s ODA. Asia-Pacific Review, 7(1): 66-89. DOI: 10.1080/713650813
  50. OECD (senza anno), Official development assistance – definition and coverage. OECD. --
  51. Phillips D.A. (2009). Reforming the World Bank: twenty years of trial and errors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  52. Port K.L. (2010). Trashending Law: The Unintended Life of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press.
  53. Reader I., Soderberg M. (2000). Japanese influences and presences in Asia. Richmond: Curzon Press.
  54. Salike N. (2012). Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment inflows in Asia: the impact of China on FDI attracting ability of other Asian economies, an analysis of pre&post crisis Japanese FDI. Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG.
  55. Samarani G. (2008). La Cina del Novecento. Torino: Einaudi. Id. (2010). Cina, ventunesimo secolo. Torino: Einaudi. Sang-Tae K., Seddon D. (2005). ODA policy and practice: Japan and the Republic of Korea. In: Arase D., a cura di, Japan’s foreign aid: old continuities and new directions. New York: Routledge.
  56. Seddon D (2005). Japanese and British overseas aid compared. In: Arase D., a cura di, Japan’s foreign aid: old continuities and new directions. New York: Routledge.
  57. Sellari P. (2013). Geopolitica dei trasporti. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  58. Shibota A. (2009). Japanese investments in China. Policy Discussion Paper, series P-004, Rieti, 2009.
  59. SIPRI (2018). 2017 Yearbook. Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Stockholm: SIPRI.
  60. Soderberg M. (1996). The business of Japanese foreign aid: five cases from Asia. New York: Routledge.
  61. Id. (2002). Japan’s ODA policy in Northeast Asia. Working Paper of the The European Institute of Japanese Studies, Stockholm School of Economics, 158. --
  62. Takahara I. (2017). Forty-four years of Sino-Japanese Diplomatic Relations Since Normalization. In: Peng Er L., a cura di, China-Japan Relations in the 21st Century. Berlin: Springer.
  63. Takamine T. (2006). The political economy of Japanese foreign aid: the role of yen loan’s in China economic growth and openness. Pacific Affairs, 79(1): 29-48. --
  64. Vallega A. (1997). Geografia delle strategie marittime. Milano: Mursia.
  65. Vanolo A. (2010). Geografia economica del sistema mondo. Torino: UTET.
  66. Vitalis V. (2002). Official Development Assistance and Foreign Direct Investment: improving the synergies. In: OECD Global Forum on International Investment: attracting
  67. Foreign Direct Investment for development, Shanghai, 5-6 December. --
  68. Sino-Japanese Relations. Beijing: Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe. Weber M. (2001). Il miracolo cinese. Bologna: il Mulino. Xing Y. (2009). Japan’s unique economic relations with China: economic integration

  • Changing Images? Italian Twitter Discourse on China and the United States during the First Wave of COVID-19 Frank Maracchione, Giulia Sciorati, Claudia Roberta Combei, in The International Spectator /2024 pp.1
    DOI: 10.1080/03932729.2023.2299452

Stefano Soriani, Pietro Mazzaferro, Caratteristiche, evoluzione e rilevanza geo-economica degli aiuti giapponesi in Cina (1979-2008). Quadro generale e analisi dei casi di Dalian e Shanghai in "RIVISTA GEOGRAFICA ITALIANA" 1/2019, pp 21-49, DOI: 10.3280/RGI2019-001002