Studying the Ecuadorian industrial district: a comparative analysis of the Italian industrial district model and the leather manufacturing sector in the city of Cotacachi (Ecuador)

Author/s Fernando Martín Mayoral, Roberta Curiazi
Publishing Year 2019 Issue 2019/2 Language Italian
Pages 35 P. 41-75 File size 296 KB
DOI 10.3280/RGI2019-002003
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The paper is part of an ongoing research on the industrial agglomerations of Ecuador. In the first phase of the investigation a comparison is made between the theoretical scheme of the Italian industrial district of Giacomo Becattini, and the case of the conglomerate of leather articles of Cotacachi (Ecuador), to analyze if the latter, among the best known at a national level, agrees with the reading of the Marshallian-Becattinian school, and to know its contribution to the socio-economic development of the territory. The conclusion to be reached is that the manufacturing sector of Cotacachi does not fully respond to the model of Becattini, if not only to an embryonic phase of development. The presence of elements compatible with it, and possible engines of a "district effect" even in terms of socio-economic development generated so far in the territory, clashes with the tendency of the firms to internalize rather than outsourcing their transactions, the absence of market roles and figures that facilitate inter-company relations and, finally, the absence of adequate institutional support, which inevitably limit its development potential. Cotacachi can therefore be defined as a "district in fieri", characterized by an "industrial atmosphere" in which there is still a weak "collective efficiency".

Keywords: Local socio-economic territorial development, industrial district, manufacturing sector, Cotacachi (Ecuador).

  1. Aguiar V., Arghoty A., Gualavisi M., Burgos S., Onofa M., Ruiz P., Zambrano R. (2013).
  2. In: King K., Jacome H., Estudios industriales de la Micro, Pequeña y Mediana Empresa, 1ra ed. Quito: V&M.
  3. Allen J. (1992). Services and the UK space economy: regionalization and economic dislocation. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 17: 292-305. DOI: 10.2307/62288
  4. Appold S.J. (1995). Agglomeration, interorganizational networks and competitive performance in the US metalworking sector. Economic Geography, 71: 49-54. DOI: 10.2307/14443
  5. Araque W. (2008). La asociatividad, con enfoque inclusivo, una alternativa para mejorar de forma equitativa la situación de las pequeñas y medianas industrias – PYME –. Ensayo de medio periodo del Doctorado en Administracion, Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar, Sede Ecuador.
  6. Araya A. (2006). Cooperacion empresarial en Pymes. TEC Empresarial, 1(45).
  7. Arcos C. (2008). Clusters como modelo para alcanzar la productividad y competitividad industrial en el Ecuador. Quito: Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar.
  8. Asheim B. (2000). Industrial districts: the contributions of Marshall and beyond. In: Clark G.L., Feldman M., Gertler M., a cura di, The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 413-431.
  9. Id., Cooke P., Martin R., a cura di (2006). Clusters and Regional Development: Critical Reflections and Explorations. Londra e New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/978020364089
  10. Aucc (2012). Registro de datos estadísticos del sector manufacturero. INEC Ecuador.
  11. Audretsch D.B., Keilbach M.C., Lehmann E.E. (2006). Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Oxford University Press.
  12. Aydalot P. (1986). La tesis del ‘medio innovador’ o ‘milieux innovateurs’. In: Teorías explicativas de las disparidades económicas espaciales. Parigi: Ed. GREMI.
  13. Bagnasco A. (1988). La Costruzione Sociale del Mercato. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  14. Becattini G. (1979). Dal ‘settore’ industriale al ‘distretto’ industriale. Alcune considerazioni sull’unita d’indagine dell’economia industriale. Rivista di Economia e Politica Industriale. 1: 7-21.
  15. Id. (1987). Mercato e forze locali: Il distretto industriale. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  16. Id. (1989). Il distretto industriale marshalliano come concetto socioeconomico. Studi e informazioni - Quaderni. 34: 51-65.
  17. Id. (1995). I sistemi locali nello sviluppo economico italiano e nella sua interpretazione. Sviluppo locale, 2(3).
  18. Id. (2000). Dal distretto industriale allo sviluppo locale. Svolgimento e difesa di una idea. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.
  19. Id. (2002). Il bruco e la farfalla. Prato: una storia esemplare dell’Italia dei distretti. Prato: Varona.
  20. Id., Musotti F. (2008). Los problemas de medicion del ‘efecto distrito. Colección Mediterráneo Económico: “Los distritos industriales”, 13: 55-82.
  21. Becchetti L., Rossi S. (2000). The positive effect of industrial district on the export performance of Italian firms. Review of Industrial Organisation, 16: 53-68. DOI: 10.1023/A:100778390038
  22. Bianchi G. (1992). Requiem per la Terza Italia? Articolo presentato nella XIII Conferenza dell’Associazione Italiana Regionale delle Scienze. Ancona, ottobre 1992.
  23. Brusco S. (1989). A policy for industrial districts. In: Goodman E., Bamford J., a cura di, Small Firms and Industrial Districts in Italy. Londra: Routledge, 259-269.
  24. Id. (1990). The idea of the Industrial District: its genesis. In: Pyke F., Sengenberger W., a cura di, Industrial Districts and Local Economic Regeneration. Ginevra: International Institute for Labour Studies.
  25. Camagni R. (1991). Innovation networks: spatial perspective. Londra: Belhaven Press.
  26. Campbell D.T. (1988). Methodology and Epistemology for Social Science: Selected Papers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 315-333.
  27. Carreto Sangines J. (2013). Marshall y los sistemas productivos locales. Economía Informa, 383: 90-106.
  28. Castells M. (1994). Technopolies of the World: The making of 21st Century Industrial Complexes. New York: Routledge.
  29. Id. (1996) The rise of the network society, Oxford: Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/978144431951
  30. Catalan J., Miranda J.A., Ramon-Munoz R. (2011). Distritos, clusters y ventaja competitiva: interpretaciones y debates. In: Catalan J., Miranda J.A., Ramon-Munoz R., a cura di, Distritos y clusters en la Europa del Sur. Madrid: LID Editorial Empresarial, 9-36.
  31. Coe N.M., Townsend A.R. (1997). Debunking the myth of localized agglomerations: the development of a regionalized service economy in South-East England. Royal Geographycal Society, 17 ottobre 1997.
  32. Cooke P. (1996). Reinventing the region: firms, clusters and networks in economic development. In: Daniel P.W., Lever W.F., a cura di, The global economy in transition. Harlow: Longman, 310-327.
  33. Cronbach L.J. (1957). Beyond the two Disciplines of Scientific Psycology. American Psychologist. 30(2): 116-127.
  34. Decarolis D.M., Deeds D.L. (1999). The impact of stocks and flows of organizational knowledge on firm performance: an empirical investigation of the biotechnology industry. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 953-968.
  35. Dei Ottati G. (1994). Cooperation and competition in the industrial district as an organization model. European Planning Studies, 2(4): 463-483. DOI: 10.1080/0965431940872028
  36. Diario El Telegrafo (10-09-2016). -- Data di consultazione: ottobre 2017.
  37. Diez J.I., Verna Etcheber R. (2012). Pueden construirse distritos industriales en territorios perifericos? Analisis del caso DIMSUR en la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Revista Lider, 20(14): 77-108.
  38. Dini M. (1997). Competitividad, Redes de Empresas Y Cooperacion Empresarial. CEPAL - Serie Gestión Publica ILPES CEPAL. Vol. 72. Santiago. --
  39. Georgescu Roegen N. (1966). Analytical Economics: Issues and Problems. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  40. Gertler M., Wolfe D. (2005). Spaces of knowledge flows: Clusters in a global context. Tenth Anniversary Summer Conference 2005 Dynamics pf Industry and Innovation:
  41. Organizations, Networks and Systems. Copenaghen, 27-29 giugno 2005.
  42. Gordon I., McCann P. (2005). Innovation, agglomeration, and regional development. Journal of Economic Geography, 5(5): 523-543.
  43. Haggard S. (1990). Pathway from the Periphery. the Politcs of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries. Londra: Cornell University Press.
  44. Harrison B. (1991). Industrial districts: .old wine in new bottles? Regional Studies. 26: 469-483. DOI: 10.1080/0034340921233134712
  45. Id., Kelley M., Gant J. (1996). Innovative firm behaviour and local milieu: exploring the intersection of agglomeration, firm effects, and technological change. Economic Geography, 72: 233-258. DOI: 10.2307/14440
  46. Henn S., Bathelt H. (2017). Cross-local knowledge fertilization, cluster emergence, and the generation of buzz. Industrial and Corporate Change: 1-18.
  47. Hernandez I., Cely S.N. (2010). Redes de competitividad y productividad compartida (Re. CyPro). Quito: Colegio de Economistas de Pichincha.
  48. Inec (2016). Directorio de Empresas y Establecimientos (DIEE). Quito.
  49. Id. (2016). Directorio de empresas y establecimientos: contenido, generalidades y resultados. Quito.
  50. Kawulich B. (2005). La observacion participante como metodo de recoleccion de datos. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 6(2).
  51. Krugman P. (1991b). History and industrial location: the case of the manufacturing belt. American Economic Review. 81. --
  52. Learner E., Storper M. (2001). The economic geography of the Internet Age. Journal of International Business Studies. 32: 641-665.
  53. Lopez E.C. (1997). Sistemas productivos locales y distritos industriales: el caso de Espana. Boletín de la AGENs: 91-106.
  54. Id. (2003). Redes Empresariales: Experiencias En La Región Andina. Trujillo: MINKA. Lundequist P., Power D. (2002). Putting Porter into Practice? Practices of Regional Cluster Bilding Evidence from Sweden. European Planning Studies, 10(6). DOI: 10.1080/096543102200000376
  55. Malmberg A. (1996). Industrial Geography: agglomeration and local milieu. Progress in Human Geography, 20(3): 392-403. DOI: 10.1177/03091325960200030
  56. Marshall A. (1890). Principles of Economics. London: Mc Millan, Liberty Fund Inc. DOI: 10.1057/978113737526
  57. Id. (1920). Industry and Trade. London: Mc Millan. DOI: 10.2307/234108
  58. Martin R., Sunley P. (1996). Paul Krugman’s geographical economies and its implications for development theory: a critical assessment, Economic Geography, 72: 259-292. DOI: 10.2307/14440
  59. Id., Id. (2003). Deconstructing clusters: chaotic concept or policy panacea. Journal of Economic Geography, 3: 5-35.
  60. Monsalve F. (2005). Temario de Economía Industrial. Ciudad Real: Universidad de Castilla La Mancha.
  61. Ohmae K. (1995). The End of the Nation State. The Rise of Regional Economies. New York: The Free Press.
  62. Paniccia I. (1998). One, a hundred, thousands industrial districts. Organizational variety of local networks of SMEs. Organizational Studies. Special Issue 19(4): 667-700. DOI: 10.1177/01708406980190040
  63. Pdot - Plan De Desarrollo y de Ordenamiento Territorial (2011). Cotacachi, Ecuador.
  64. Phelps N.A. (1992). External economies, agglomeration and flexible accumulation. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 17: 35-46. DOI: 10.2307/62263
  65. Pietrobelli C., Rabellotti R. (2004). Upgrading in Cluster and Value Chains in Latin America. The Role of Policies. Best Practices Series. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, Sustainable Development Department, January 2004.
  66. Porter M.E. (1989). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: The Free Press. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-349-11336-
  67. Id. (1998b). Location clusters and company strategy. In: Clark G.L., Feldman M., Gertler M., a cura di, Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 253-274.
  68. Id. (1998c). Clusters and the New Economics of Competitiveness. Harvard Business Review, November-Dicember 1998: 77-90.
  69. Rabellotti R. (1995). In There an “Industrial District Model”? Footwear District in Italy and Mexico Compared. World Development, 23(1): 29-41.
  70. Id. (1997a). External economies and cooperation in industrial districts: A comparison of Italy and Mexico. Washington DC: McMillan.
  71. Id., Schmitz H. (2010). The Internal Heterogeneity of Industrial Districts in Italy, Brazil and Mexico. Regional Studies, 33(2): 97-108. Routledge. DOI: 10.1080/0034340995012290
  72. Rodrik D. (1999). The New Global Economy and Developing Countries: Making Openness Work. Washington DC: Overseas Development Council.
  73. Sabel C., Zeitlin J. (1985). Historical Alternatives to Mass Production: Politics, Markets and Technology in Nineteenth-Century Industrialization. Past and Present, 108: 133-176.
  74. Saxenian A. (1994). Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 5-7.
  75. Schmitz H. (1982). Growth Constraints on Small-scale Manufacturing in developing Countries: A Critical Review. World Development, 10: 429-450.
  76. Id. (1990). Small firms and flexible specialization in developing countries. Labour and Society, 15(3).
  77. Id. (1995). Collective Efficiency: Growth Paath for Small.scale Industry. Journal of Development Studies, 31(4): 529-566. DOI: 10.1080/0022038950842237
  78. Id., Musyck B. (1988). Industrial districts in Europe: Policy lessons for the developing countries. Discussion Paper, 324. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.
  79. Scott A.J. (1988). New Industrial Spaces. London: Pion.
  80. Id. (1995). The geographic foundation of industrial performance. Competition and Change. 1: 51-66. DOI: 10.1177/10245294950010010
  81. Id. (1998). Flexible production systems and regional development: the rise of new industrial spaces in North America and Western Europe. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 12: 171-186.
  82. Id. (2001). Industrial Revitalization in the ABC Municipalities, Sao Paulo: Diagnostic Analysis and Strategic Recommendations for a New Economy and a New Regionalism. Regional Development Studies, 7: 1-32.
  83. Id. (2002). Regional push: towards a geography of development and growth in low and middle-income countries. Third World Quarterly, 23: 137-161. DOI: 10.1080/0143659022010821
  84. Id. (2003). Regions, Globalization, Development. Regional Studies, 37(6-7): 579-593. DOI: 10.1080/0034340032000108697
  85. Id., Storper M. (1986). Production, work, territory: The Geographical Anatomy of Industrial Capitalism. Winchester MA: Allen & Unwin.
  86. Sforzi F. (1990). The quantitative importance of Marshallian industrial districts in the Italian economy. In: Pyke F., Becattini G., Sengenberger W., a cura di, Industrial districts and local economic regeneration. Ginevra: International Institute for Labor Studies.
  87. Id. (2005). Dal distretto industriale allo sviluppo locale. Lezione inaugurale - Artimio: Incontri pratesi sullo sviluppo locale, 12 settembre 2005.
  88. Id. (2009). The empirical evidence of industrial districts in Italy. In: Becattini G., Bellandi M., De Propris L., a cura di, A Handbook of Industrial Districts. Edward Elgar Publishing. Agosto 2009, 327-342. DOI: 10.4337/9781781007808.0004
  89. Id. (2012). The Industrial District: From Marshall to Becattini. Il pensiero economico italiano, XVI(2): 71-80. SSRN: --
  90. Signorini L.F. (1994a). Una verifica quantitativa dell’effetto distretto. Sviluppo locale, 1. Id. (1994b). Il prezzo di Prato, o misurando gli effetti del distretto industriale. Regional Science - RSAI, 73: 369-392.
  91. Id. (2000a). Lo sviluppo locale. Un’ indagine della Banca d’Italia sui distretti industriali. Roma: Donzelli.
  92. Soler V. (2000). Verificación de las hipótesis del distrito industrial: una aplicación al caso valenciano. Economía Industrial, 334: 13-23.
  93. Staber U. (1997). Specialization in a declining industrial district. Growth and Change. DOI: 10.1111/1468-2257.0006
  94. Storper M. (1981). Toward a structural theory of industrial location. Industrial Locations and Regional System. Londra: Croom Helm.
  95. Id. (1993). Regional ‘worlds’ of production: learning and innovation in the technology district of France, Italy and the USA. Regional Studies, 27: 433-455. DOI: 10.1080/0034340931233134767
  96. Id. (1997). The Regional World: Territorial Development in a Global Economy. New York: The Guilford Press.
  97. Id., Venables A. (2002). Buzz: The Economic Force of the City. Paper delivered to the International Seminar on Space and Economy. Ouro Preto, Brazil.
  98. Swann P.G.M. (2006). Capitolo 13. In: Asheim B., Cooke P., Martin R., a cura di, Clusters and Regional Development: Critical Reflections and Explorations. Londra e New York: Routledge.
  99. Tomas M.J.V. (2010). Pautas evolutivas del distrito industrial. Un análisis cuantitativo del caso español. Diss. Universitat Politecnica de Valencia.
  100. Venacio L. (2007). Globalización, Desarrollo Local y Sociedad Civil. --
  101. Wolfe D.A., Gertler M.S. (2004). Clusters from the Inside and Out: Local Dynamics and Global Linkages. Urban Studies, 41(5/6): 1071-1093. DOI: 10.1080/0042098041000167583

Fernando Martín Mayoral, Roberta Curiazi, Studiando il distretto industriale ecuadoriano: un’analisi comparativa tra il modello italiano e il settore manifatturiero del cuoio di Cotacachi (Ecuador) in "RIVISTA GEOGRAFICA ITALIANA" 2/2019, pp 41-75, DOI: 10.3280/RGI2019-002003