Dualisation as Class Conflict: The Case of Labour Market and Vocational Training in Germany

Author/s Chiara Benassi, Niccolò Durazzi
Publishing Year 2021 Issue 2021/159 Language English
Pages 19 P. 31-49 File size 248 KB
DOI 10.3280/SL2021-159002
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Popular accounts of labour market reforms in Western Europe have identified a process of dualisation over the last three decades, whereby service sector employ-ment has been deregulated while workers in the core manufacturing sector still en-joy high levels of employment protection and high wages. Two different labour market logics are thought to be in place between core and peripheral sectors and to co-exist in a stable equilibrium nurtured by the co-incidence of interests between capital and labour in core manufacturing sector, who jointly acted to safeguard workers in core sectors at the expense of peripheral service sectors. Building on the case studies of labour market and vocational training reform in Germany, this ar-ticle challenges this account. It is argued that processes of dualisation are best conceptualised as the contested outcome of a political conflict between capital and labour. Dualisation is not a stable equilibrium but rather the result of bargain-ing processes between employers who push for liberalization and unions who try to prevent it or - at least - mitigate it.

Keywords: Trade unions, labour market, dualisation

  1. Anderson K.M., Hassel A. (2013). Pathways of change in CMEs: training regimes in Germany and the Netherlands. In: Wren A., ed., The Political Economy of the Service Transition. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 171-194.
  2. Baccaro L., Benassi C. (2017). Throwing out the ballast: growth models and the liberalization of German industrial relations. Socio-Economic Review, 15(1): 85-115.
  3. Dorigatti L. (2017). Trade unions in segmented labour markets between inclusion and exclusion. Evidence from the German metal and chemical sectors. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 70(4): 919-941.
  4. Durazzi N. (2017). Inclusive Unions in a Dualized Labour Market? The Challenge of Organizing Labour Market Policy and Social Protection for Labour Market Outsiders. Social Policy & Administration, 51(2): 265-285.
  5. Durazzi N., Fleckenstein T. and Lee S.C. (2018). Social Solidarity for All? Trade Union Strategies, Labor Market Dualization, and the Welfare State in Italy and South Korea. Politics & Society, 46(2): 205-233. DOI: 10.1177/003232921877371
  6. Durazzi N., Geyer L. (2020). Social inclusion in the knowledge economy: unions’ strategies and institutional change in the Austrian and German training systems. Socio-Economic Review, 18(1): 103-124.
  7. Durazzi N., Geyer L. (2021). Social (investment) partners? Trade unions and the welfare state for the knowledge economy. In: Garritzmann J.L., Häusermann S. and Palier B., eds., The World Politics of Social Investment. New York: Oxford University Press.
  8. Eichhorst W., Marx P. (2011). Reforming German Labour Market Institutions: A Dual Path to Flexibility. Journal of European Social Policy, 21(1): 73-87.
  9. Emmenegger P., Haeusermann S., Palier B. and Seeleib-Kaiser M. (2012). The Age of Dualization: The Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrialising Societies Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. Fleckenstein T. (2012). The politics of labour market reforms and social citizenship in Germany. West European Politics, 35(4): 847-868.
  11. Fleckenstein T., Lee S.C. (2017). The politics of labor market reform in coordinated welfare capitalism: comparing Sweden, Germany, and South Korea. World Politics, 69(1): 144-183.
  12. Funk L. (2004). Parliament passes law on training levy. Dublin: Eurofound.
  13. Funk L. (2004). Training levy law avoided by pact. Dublin: Eurofound.
  14. Hassel A. (2014). The Paradox of Liberalization – Understanding Dualism and the Recovery of the German Political Economy. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(1): 57-81.
  15. Hobler D., Pfal S. and Spitznagel J. (2020). Leiharbeit 1991-2019. Duesseldorf: Economic and Social Research Institute
  16. Holst H. (2008). The Political Economy of Trade Union Strategies in Austria and Germany: The Case of Call Centres. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 14(1): 25-45.
  17. Holst H. (2014). ‘Commodifying institutions’: vertical disintegration and institutional change in German labour relations. Work, Employment & Society, 28(1): 3-20.
  18. Holst H., Nachtwey O. and Doerre K. (2010). The Strategic Use of Temporary Agency Work – Functional Change of a Non-standard Form of Employment. International Journal of Action Research, 6(1): 108-138.
  19. IG Metall (13.05.17). Bessere Leiharbeits-Tarife in der Metallindustrie: Mehr Geld und Perspektive auf Übernahme für Leiharbeiter. Retrieved 20.11.2020, from -- www.labournet.de/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/tvleiz_-dchb.pdf
  20. IGM and Ver.di (2004). IG Metall und Ver.di dringen auf Verabschiedung der Ausbildungsumlage. Frankfurt and Berlin: IG Metall and Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft.
  21. Kupfer A. (2010). The socio‐political significance of changes to the vocational education system in Germany. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31(1): 85-97.
  22. Labournet (08.02.2020). Nix dazu gelernt: IG Metall startet Tarifrunde Leiharbeit 2019/2020 mit einer “aktivierenden Befragung” – wir erinnern an die Kündigungstermine der Tarifverträge. Retrieved 20.11.2020, from -- www.labournet.de/politik/alltag/leiharbeit/tarifverhandlungen/nix-dazu-gelernt-ig-metall-startet-tarifrunde-leiharbeit-20192020-mit-einer-aktivierenden-befragung-wir-erinnern-die-kuendigungstermine-der-tarifvertraege/
  23. Lindbeck A., Snower D. (1986). Wage Setting, Unemployment, and Insider-Outsider Relations. American Economic Review, 76(2): 235-239.
  24. Lindbeck A., Snower D. (2002). The Insider-Outsider Theory: A Survey. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour.
  25. Marx P., Starke P. (2017). Dualization as Destiny? The Political Economy of the German Minimum Wage Reform. Politics & Society, 45(4): 559-584.
  26. OECD (2020). Dataset: Strictness of employment protection. Data extracted on 30 Nov 2020 15:48 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat.
  27. Palier B., Thelen K. (2010). Institutionalizing Dualism: Complementarities and Change in France and Germany. Politics&Society, 38(1): 119-148.
  28. Protsch P., Solga H. (2016). The social stratification of the German VET system. Journal of Education and Work, 29(6): 637-661.
  29. Rossman W. (21.04.17). 48 Monate Befristung – neuer TV Leiharbeit der IG Metall. Wird Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsgesetz von der IG Metall verschlimmert ? Retrieved 22.11.2020, -- from http://koeln-bonn.dgb.de/themen/++co++eb9916a6-2672-11e7-8a6f-525400e5a74a.
  30. Rubery J. (1978). Structured Labour Markets, Worker Organisation and Low Pay. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2(1): 17-36.
  31. Rueda D. (2005). Insider–outsider politics in industrialized democracies: the challenge to social democratic parties. American political science review, 99(1): 61-74.
  32. Streeck W. (2009). Re-forming Capitalism: Institutional Change in the German Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  33. Tapia M., Turner L. (2013). Union Campaigns as Countermovements: Mobilizing Immigrant Workers in France and the United Kingdom. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 51(3): 601-622.
  34. Thelen K. (2014). Varieties of Liberalization and the New Politics of Social Solidarity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  35. Doeringer P.J., Piore M. (1971). Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Lexington, Mass.: Heath Lexington Books.
  36. Doellgast V., Greer I. (2007). Vertical Disintegration and the Disorganization of German Industrial Relations. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 45(1): 55-76.
  37. Doellgast V., Berg P. (2017). Negotiating Flexibility: External Contracting and Working Time Control in German and Danish Telecommunications Firms. ILR Review, 71(1): 117-142.
  38. Diessner S., Durazzi, N. and Hope D. (2020). Reshaping Skills, Industrial Relations and Social Protection for the Knowledge Economy: Evidence from Germany. EUI Working Paper MWP 2020/07. Florence: European University Institute.
  39. Di Maio G., Graf L. and Wilson A. (2019). Torn between economic efficiency and social equality? Short-track apprenticeships in Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. European educational research journal, 18(6): 699-723.
  40. DGB (2004). DGB Stellungnahme zum Referentenentwurf zur Reform der beruflichen Bildung. Berlin: Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund.
  41. DGB (2004). Ausbildungsumlage: Fakten und Argumente. Berlin: Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund.
  42. Busemeyer M.R. (2015). Skills and Inequality: Partisan Politics and the Political Economy of Education Reforms in Western Welfare States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  43. Busemeyer M.R. (2012). Business as a pivotal actor in the politics of training reform: insights from the case of Germany. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(4): 690-713.
  44. Bundesagentur für Arbeit (2020). Entwicklungen in der Zeitarbeit. Berichte: Blickpunkt Arbeitsmarkt. Nürnberg: Federal Employment Agency.
  45. Bentolila S., Dolado J.J. and Bentolila J.F. (2012). Reforming an insider-outsider labor market: the Spanish experience. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 1(4). -- DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9012-1-4
  46. Benassi C., Vlandas T. (2016). Union inclusiveness and temporary agency workers: The role of power resources and union ideology. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 22(1): 5-22.
  47. Benassi C., Dorigatti L. and Pannini E (2019). Explaining divergent bargaining outcomes for agency workers: The role of labour divides and labour market reforms. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 25(2): 163-179.
  48. Benassi C., Dorigatti L. (2020). Out of Sight, Out of Mind: The Challenge of External Work Arrangements for Industrial Manufacturing Unions in Germany and Italy. Work, Employment and Society, 34(6): 1027-1044. DOI: 10.1177/095001702090303
  49. Benassi C., Dorigatti L. (2015). Straight to the Core: the IG Metall Campaign towards Agency Workers. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 53(3): 533-555.
  50. Benassi C. (2017). Varieties of workplace dualisation: a study of agency work in the German automotive industry. Industrial Relations Journal, 48(5-6): 424-441.
  51. Benassi C. (2016). Liberalization Only at the Margins? Analysing the Growth of Temporary Work in German Core Manufacturing Sectors. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 54(3): 597-622.
  52. Beicht U. (2009). Verbesserung der Ausbildungschancen oder sinnlose Warteschleife?. BiBB Report 11/09. Bonn: Federal Institute for Vocational Training.
  53. Baccaro L., Howell C. (2017). Trajectories of Neoliberal Transformation: European Industrial Relations Since the 1970s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  54. Baccaro L., Hamann K. and Turner L. (2003). The Politics of Labour Movement Revitalization: The Need for a Revitalized Perspective. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 9(1): 119-133.
  55. Thelen K., Busemeyer M.R. (2012). Institutional change in German vocational training: From collectivism towards segmentalism. In: Busemeyer M.R., Trampusch C., eds., The Political Economy of Collective Skill Formation. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 68-100.
  56. Turner L. (2009). Institutions and Activism: Crisis and Opportunity for a German Labor Movement in Decline. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 62(3): 294-312.
  57. Ulrich J.G. (2008). Jugendliche im Übergangssystem – eine Bestandsaufnahme. Bonn: Federal Institute for Vocational Training
  58. Vitols K. (2008). Zwischen Stabilitaet und Wandel: Die Sozialpartnerschaft in Deutschland und die atypische Beschaeftigungsform Zeitarbeit. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kova.
  59. Weisstanner D. (2020). Insiders under pressure: Flexibilization at the margins and wage inequality. Journal of Social Policy: 1-20. DOI: 10.1017/S004727942000040
  60. Yang J.J. (2006). Corporate Unionism and Labor Market Flexibility in South Korea. Journal of East Asian Studies, 6(2): 205-231.
  61. Zientara P. (2008). A Report on the Polish Labor Market: An Insider-Outsider System. Industrial Relations, 47(3): 419-429.

Chiara Benassi, Niccolò Durazzi, Dualisation as Class Conflict: The Case of Labour Market and Vocational Training in Germany in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO " 159/2021, pp 31-49, DOI: 10.3280/SL2021-159002