Hypnosis as an "altered state of consciousness": bridging the gap between experimental research and psychotherapeutic practice

Journal title IPNOSI
Author/s Paolo Scacchia
Publishing Year 2017 Issue 2017/1
Language Italian Pages 35 P. 5-39 File size 579 KB
DOI 10.3280/IPN2017-001001
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Hypnosis has historically been considered as an altered state of consciousness, even though it is still impossible to find general agreement on whether hypnosis per se has an effect on brain activity, without any contribution of suggestion. The controversy over whether hypnosis is a particular state of consciousness is likely to increase the gap between experimental research and psychotherapeutic practice. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the issue of experimental research about hypnosis, the future perspectives to find clear psychophysiological markers of this condition and the clinical implications of the recent scientific research about this subject. In particular, the strategic use of the implicit association between hypnosis and altered state of consciousness is discussed in terms of placebo, priming or me-ta-suggestion to enhance the efficacy and efficiency of medical and/or psychotherapeutic intervention.

Keywords: Hypnosis, altered state of consciousness, hypnotic suggestion, psycho-therapy, placebo, priming.

  1. Babinski J., Froment J. (1918). Hysteria or pithiatism and reflex nervous disorders in the neurology of war. London: University of London Press.
  2. Barabasz A. (1982). Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hypnotizability: pain, EEG, alpha, skin conductance and temperature response. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30: 147-166. DOI: 10.1080/00207148208407380
  3. Barabasz A. (2005/2006). Whither spontaneous hypnosis: a critical issue for practitioners and researcher. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 48: 91-97. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2005.10401501
  4. Barabasz A., Barabasz M. (1989). Effects of restricted environmental stimulation: enhancement of hypnotizability for experimental and chronic pain control. In-ternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37: 217-231. DOI: 10.1080/00207148908414474
  5. Barber T.X. (1969). Hypnosis: A Scientific Approach. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. Barber T.X., Spanos N.P., Chaves J.F. (1974). Hypnosis, Imagination, and Human Potentialities. New York: Pergamon Press.
  7. Barnier A., Dienes Z., Mitchell C.J. (2008). How hypnosis happens: New cognitive theories of hypnotic susceptibility, in Nash M.R., Barnier A.J., The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis (pp. 141-178). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  8. Barnier A.J., Council J.R. (2010). Hypnotizability matters: The what, why, and how of measurement, in Lynn S.J., Rhue J.W., Kirsch I., Handbook of clinical hypnosis (2nd edition, pp. 47-77). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  9. Kihlstrom J.F. (2005). Is hypnosis an altered state of consciousness or what? Con-temporary Hypnosis, 22: 34-38.
  10. Batty M.J., Bonnington S., Tang B.K., Hawken M.B., Gruzelier J.H. (2006). Re-laxation strategies and enhancement of hypnotic susceptibility: EEG neu-rofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation and self-hypnosis. Brain Research Bulletin, 71: 83-90.
  11. Bell V., Oakley D.A., Halligan P.W., Deeley Q. (2011). Dissociation in hysteria and hypnosis: Evidence from cognitive neuroscience. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 82(3): 332-339.
  12. Benedetti F., Arduino C., Costa S., Vighetti S., Tarenzi L., Rainero I., Asteggiano G. (2006). Loss of expectation-related mechanisms in Alzheimer’s disease makes analgesic therapies less effective. Pain, 121: 133-144.
  13. Benedetti F., Lanotte M., Lopiano L., Colloca L. (2007). When words are painful: unrav-eling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect. Neuroscience, 147(2): 260-271.
  14. Benedetti F., Carlino E., Pollo A. (2011). How Placebos Change the Patient's Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36: 339-354.
  15. Benedetti F. (2014). Placebo effects (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  16. Benham G., Woody E.Z., Wilson K.S., Nash M.R. (2006). Expect the unexpected: Ability, attitude, and responsiveness to hypnosis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91: 342-350. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.2.342
  17. Bourguignon E., Evascu T. (1977). Altered states of consciousness within a general evolutionary perspective: A holocultural analysis. Behavior Science Research, 12: 199-216. DOI: 10.1177/106939717701200303
  18. Bryant R.A., Guthrie R.M., Moulds M.L. (2001). Hypnotizability in acute stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158: 600-604.
  19. Burn C. Barnier A.J., McConkey K.M. (2001). Information processing during hyp-notically suggested sex change. International Journal of Clinical and Experi-mental Hypnosis, 49: 231-242. DOI: 10.1080/00207140108410073
  20. Cardeña E. (2005). The phenomenology of deep hypnosis: quiescent and physically active. Internation Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 53(1): 37-59. DOI: 10.1080/00207140490914234
  21. Cardeña E., Carlson E. (2011). Acute stress disorder revisited. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7: 245-267.
  22. Cardeña E., Jonsson P., Terhune D.B., Marcusson-Clavertz D. (2013). The neuro-phenom-enology of neutral hypnosis. Cortex, 49: 375-385.
  23. Cardeña E. (2014). Hypnos and Psyche: how hypnosis has contributed to the study of consciousness. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(2): 123-138.
  24. Cardeña E., Marcusson-Clavertz D. (2016). The relation of hypnotizability and dissociation to everyday mentation: an experience-sampling study. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3: 61-79.
  25. Chomsky N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mounton Publishers.
  26. Chomsky N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of Syntax. Cambrige, MA: MIT Press.
  27. Connors M.H., Cox R.E., Barnier A.J., Langdon R., Coltheart M. (2012). Mirror agnosia and the mirrored-self misidentification delusion: A hypnotic analogue. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 17: 197-226. DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2011.582770
  28. Cox R.E., Barnier A.J. (2010). Hypnotic illusion and clinical delusion: Hypnosis as a research method. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 15: 202-232. DOI: 10.1080/13546800903319884
  29. Cox R.E., Barnier A.J. (2015). A hypnotic analogue of clinical confabulation. In-ternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 63(3): 249-273. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2015.1031037
  30. Crawford H.J., Gruzelier J.H. (1992). A midstream view of the neuropsychophysi-ology of hypnosis: Recent research and future directions, in Fromm E., Nash M.R. Contemporary hypnosis research (pp. 227-266). New York: Guilford Press.
  31. Crawford H.J., Gur R.C., Skolnick B., Gur R.E., Benson D.M. (1993). Effects of hypnosis on regional cerebral blood flow during ischemic pain with and without suggested hypnotic analgesia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 15: 181-195. DOI: 10.1016/0167-8760(93)90002-7.
  32. Crawford H.J. (1994). Brain dynamics and hypnosis: Attentional and disattentional processes. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42(3): 204-232. DOI: 10.1080/00207149408409352
  33. De Benedittis G. (2012). The hypnotic brain: Linking neuroscience to psychother-apy. Contemporary Hypnosis and Integrative Therapy, 29(1): 103-115.
  34. De la Tourette G. (1887). L’hypnotisme et les états analogues au point de vue mèdico-lègale. Paris: Plon, Nourrit.
  35. De Pascalis V., Chiaradia C., Carotenuto E. (2002). The contribution of suggesti-bility and expectation to placebo analgesia phenomenon in an experimental setting. Pain, 96(3): 393-402. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(01)00485-7
  36. De Pascalis V. (2015). Building Bridges of Understanding (pp. 20-25). The Inter-national Society of Hypnosis, Newsletter 2015, Volume 39, N° 3. --Testo dispo-nibile al sito: http://www.ishhypnosis.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/ISH-_ISH_NL_September_2015.pdf
  37. De Pascalis V., Scacchia P. (2016). Hypnotizability and Placebo Analgesia in Waking and Hypnosis as Modulators of Auditory Startle Responses in Healthy Women: An ERP Study. PLoS ONE, 11(8): e0159135.
  38. Dell P.F., O’Neil J. (2009). Dissociation and the dissociative disorder: DSM-V and beyond. New York: Routledge.
  39. Deeley Q., Oakley D.A., Walsh E., Bell V., Mehta M.A., Halligan P.W. (2014). Modelling psychiatric and cultural possession phenomena with suggestion and fMRI. Cortex, 53: 107-119.
  40. Dehaene A., Changeaux J.P., Naccache L., Sackur J., Sergent C. (2006). Con-scious, preconscious, and subliminal processing: a testable taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(5): 204-211.
  41. Dehaene A., Changeaux J.P. (2011). Experimental and theoretical approaches to conscious processing. Neuron, 70(2): 200-227.
  42. Denton D., Shade R., Zamarippa F., Egan G., Blair-West J., McKinley M., Lancas-ter J., Fox P. (1999). Neuroimaging of genesis and satiation of thirst and an in-teroceptor-driven theory of origins of primary consciousness. PNAS, 96: 5304-5309.
  43. Derbyshire S.W.G., Whalley M.G., Stenger V.A., Oakley D.A. (2004). Cerebral activation during hypnotically induced and imagined pain. Neuroimage, 23: 392-401.
  44. Di Blasi Z., Harkness E., Ernst E., Georgiou A., Kleijnen J. (2001). Influence of context effects on health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet, 357: 757-762. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04169-6
  45. Diamond M.J. (1974). Modification of hypnotizability: a review. Psychological Bulletin, 81: 180-198.
  46. Dienes Z., Perner J. (2007). The cold control theory of hypnosis, in Jamieson G., Hypnosis and conscious states: The cognitive neuroscience perspective (pp. 293-314). Oxford University Press.
  47. Dienes Z. (2012). Is hypnotic responding the strategic relinquishment of metacog-nition?, in Beran M., Brandl J.L., Perner J., Proust J., The foundation of meta-cognition (pp. 267-278). Oxford University Press.
  48. Dienes Z., Hutton S. (2012). Understanding hypnosis metacognitively: rTMS ap-plied to left DLPFC increases hypnotic suggestibility. Cortex, 49(2): 386-392.
  49. Dienes Z., Lush P., Semmens-Wheeler R., Parkinson J., Scott R., Naish P. (2016). Hypnosis as self-deception; Meditation as a self-insight, in Raz A., Lifshitz M., Hypnosis and meditation: Towards an integrative science of conscious planes (pp. 107-128). Oxford University Press.
  50. Dixon M., Laurence J.R. (1992). Two hundred years of hypnosis research: Ques-tions resolved? Questions unanswered!, in Fromm E., Nash M., Contemporary hypnosis research (pp. 34-66). New York: Guilford.
  51. Edelman G.M., Tononi G. (2000). A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Be-comes Imagination. New York: Basic Books.
  52. Edmonston W.E. Jr. (1979). The effects of neutral hypnosis on conditioned re-sponses: implications for hypnosis as relaxation, in Fromm E., Shor R.E, Hyp-nosis: Developments in Research and New Perspectives (pp. 415-455). New York: Aldine.
  53. Egner T., Jamieson G., Gruzelier J. (2005). Hypnosis decouples cognitive control from conflict monitoring processes of the frontal lobe. Neuroimage, 27: 969-978.
  54. Elkins G.R., Barabasz A.F., Council J.R., Spiegel D. (2015). Advancing Research and Practice: The Revised APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis. The Inter-national Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 63: 1-9. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2014.961870
  55. Erickson M.H., Rossi E.L., Rossi S.I. (1976). Hypnotic realities: The induction of clinical hypnosis and forms of indirect suggestion. New York: Irvington Publishers.
  56. Farvolden P., Woody E.Z. (2004). Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive func-tioning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 52(1): 3-26.
  57. Fingelkurts A.A., Neves C.F.H. (2013). Consciousness as a phenomenon in the op-erational architectonics of the brain organization: criticality and self-organization consideration. Chaos Soliton Fractals, 55: 13-31.
  58. Flammer E., Bongartz W. (2003). On the efficacy of hypnosis: a meta-analytic study. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20(4): 179-197.
  59. Flammer E., Alladin A. (2007). The efficacy of hypnotherapy in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders: Meta-analytic evidence. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55(3): 251-274. DOI: 10.1080/00207140701338696
  60. Fleming S.M., Weil R.S., Nagy Z., Dolan R.J., Rees G. (2010). Relating introspective accuracy to individual differences in brain structures. Science, 329(5998): 1541-1543.
  61. Frisaldi E., Piedimonte A., Benedetti F. (2015). Placebo and nocebo effects: A complex interplay between psychological factors and neurochemical networks. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57: 267-284. DOI: 10.1080/0029157.2014.976785
  62. Frischholz E.J. (2007). Hypnosis, hypnotizability, and placebo. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 50: 49-58. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2007.10401597
  63. Galea V., Woody E., Szechtman H., Pierrynowski M.R. (2010). Motion in response to hypnotic suggestion of arm rigidity: A window on underlying mechanisms. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 58: 251-268. DOI: 10.1080/00207141003760561
  64. Gandhi B., Oakley D.A. (2005). Does “hypnosis” by any other name smell as sweet? The efficacy of “hypnotic” inductions depends on the label “hypnosis”. Consciousness and Cognition, 14(2): 304-315.
  65. Gfeller J.D. (1994). Hypnotizability enhancement: Clinical implications of empiri-cal findings. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37: 107-116. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.1994.10403123.
  66. Glass L.B., Barber T.X. (1961). A note on hypnotic behaviour, the definition of the situation, and the placebo effect. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 132: 539-541. DOI: 10.1097/00005053-196106000-00009
  67. Gorassini D.R., Spanos N.P. (1986). A social-cognitive skill approach to the suc-cessful modification of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Personality and So-cial Psychology, 50: 1004-1012. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.50.5.1004
  68. Green J.P., Lynn S.J. (2011). Hypnotic responsiveness: expectancy, attitudes, fan-tasy proneness, absorption, and gender. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 59: 103-121. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2011.522914
  69. Gruzelier J.H. (1990). Neurophysiological investigations of hypnosis: cerebral laterality, and beyond, in Van Dyck R., Spinhoven P.H., Van der Does A.J.W., Hypnosis: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice (pp. 38-51). Free University Press.
  70. Gruzelier J.H., Warren K. (1993). Neuropsychological evidence for reductions on left frontal tests with hypnosis. Psychological Medicine, 23(1): 93-101. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291700038885
  71. Gruzelier J.H. (1998). A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis: a re-view of the evidence. Contemporary Hypnosis, 15(1): 3-21.
  72. Gruzelier J.H. (2000). Redefining hypnosis: theory, methods and integration. Con-temporary Hypnosis, 17(2): 51-70.
  73. Gruzelier J.H., Gray M., Horn P. (2002). The involvement of frontally modulated attention in hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 19(4): 179-189.
  74. Gruzelier J.H. (2006). Frontal functions, connectivity and neural efficiency under-pinning hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1): 15-32.
  75. Halligan P.W., Athwal B.S., Oakley D.A., Frackowiak R.S.J. (2000). The functional anatomy of a hypnotic paralysis: Implications for conversion hysteria. The Lancet, 355: 986-987. DOI: 10.1016/S0010-0277(97)00020-6
  76. Hilgard E.R. (1965). Hypnotic Susceptibility. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
  77. Hilgard E.R. (1975). Hypnosis. Annual Review of Psychology, 26: 19-44.
  78. Hilgard E.R. (1986). Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action. New York: Wiley.
  79. Hinds A.L., Woody E.Z., Van Ameringen M., Schmidt L.A., Szechtman H. (2012). When too much is not enough: obsessive-compulsive disorder as a pathology of stopping, rather than starting. PLoS one, 7(1): e30586.
  80. Hoeft F., Gabrieli J.D.E., Whitfield-Gabrieli S., Haas B.W., Bammer R., Menon V., Spiegel D. (2012). Functional brain basis of hypnotizability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(10): 1064-1072.
  81. Horton J.E., Crawford H.J. (2004). Neurophysiological and genetic determinants of high hypnotizability, in Heap M., Brown R.J., Oakley D.A., The Highly Hypno-tizable Person: Theoretical, Experimental and Clinical Issues (pp. 133-151). London: Routledge.
  82. Horton J.E., Crawford H.J., Harrington G., Downs J.H. (2004). Increased anterior corpus callosum size associated positively with hypnotizability and the ability to control pain. Brain, 127:1741-1747.
  83. Hull C.L. (1933). Hypnosis and suggestibility: An experimental approach. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.
  84. Hull C.L., Patten E.F., Switzer S.A. (1933). Does positive response to direct sug-gestion as such evoke a generalized hypersuggestibility. Journal of General Psychology, 8: 52-64. DOI: 10.1080/00221309.1933.9713175
  85. Hylands-White N., Derbyshire S.W.G. (2007). Modifying pain perception: Is it better to be hypnotizable or feel that you are hypnotized? Contemporary Hyp-nosis, 24: 143-153.
  86. Kihlstrom J.F. (2013). Neuro-Hypnotism: Prospects for Hypnosis and Neurosci-ence. Cortex, 49: 365-374.
  87. Kirsch I. (1990). Changing expectations: a key to effective psychotherapy. Califor-nia: Brooks/Cole.
  88. Jamieson G.A., Burgess A.P. (2014). Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8: 528.
  89. Jamieson G.A., Sheehan P.W. (2004). An empirical test of Woody and Bower’s dissociated-control theory of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 52: 232-249. DOI: 10.1080/0020714049052349
  90. Jamieson G.A., Woody E.Z. (2007). Dissociated control as a paradigm for cogni-tive neuroscience research and theorizing in hypnosis, in Jamieson J.A., Hyp-nosis and conscious state: The cognitive neuroscience perspective (pp. 111-129). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  91. Jensen M.P., Patterson D.R. (2014). Hypnotic approaches for chronic pain man-agement: clinical implications of recent research findings. American Psycholo-gist, 69(2): 167-177.
  92. Jensen M.P., Adachi T., Tomè-Pires C., Lee J., Osman Z.J., Mirò J. (2015). Mech-anisms of hypnosis. Toward a Development of a Biopsychosocial Model. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 63(1): 34-75. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2014.961875
  93. Jensen M.P., Galer D.P., Linea L., Johnson B.S., George H.R., Mendoza M.E., Gertz K. J. (2016). The Association Between Pain-related Belief, Pain Intensity, and Patient Functioning: Hypnotizability as a Moderator. Clinical Journal of Pain, 32: 506-512. DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000294.
  94. Kaiser J., Barker R., Haenschel C., Baldewag T., Gruzelier J.H. (1997). Effects of hypnosis on performance and error-related EEG negativity during a modified Stroop task. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 25: 80. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-8760(97)85571-7
  95. Kallio S., Revonsuo A., Hamalainen H., Markela J. Gruzelier J.H. (2001). Anterior brain functions and hypnosis: a test of the frontal hypothesis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49: 95-108. DOI: 10.1080/00207140108410061
  96. Kallio S., Revonsuo A. (2003). Hypnotic phenomena and altered states of con-sciousness: A multilevel framework of description and explanation. Contempo-rary Hypnosis, 20: 111-164.
  97. Kallio S., Revonsuo A. (2005). Altering the state of the altered state debate: Reply to commentaries. Contemporary Hypnosis, 22: 46-55.
  98. Kallio S., Koivisto M. (2013). Posthypnotic suggestion alters conscious color per-ception in an automatic manner. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61(4): 371-387. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2013.810446
  99. Kallio S., Koivisto M. (2016). Seeing Blue as Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 64: 261-284. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2016.1171088
  100. Kazdin A.E. (2008). Evidence-based treatment and practice: New opportunities to bridge clinical research and practice, enhance the knowledge base, and improve patient care. American Psychologist, 63: 146-159. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.146
  101. Kelso J.A.S. (2012). Multistability and metastability: understanding dynamic coor-dination in the brain. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London, 367: 906-918.
  102. Kendrick C., Koep L., Johnson A., Fisher W., Elkins G.R. (2012). Feasibility of sham hypnosis: Empirical data and implications for randomized controlled tri-als. Contemporary Hypnosis and Integrative Therapy, 29(4): 317-331.
  103. Kihlstrom J.F. (1979). Hypnosis and psychopathology: Retrospect and prospect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88(5): 459-473.
  104. Kihlstrom J.F. (1985). Hypnosis. Annual Review of Psychology, 36: 385-418.
  105. Kirsch I. (1991). The social learning theory of hypnosis, in Lynn S.J., Rhue J.W., Theories of Hypnosis: Current Models and Perspectives (pp. 439-466). New York: Guilford Press.
  106. Kirsch I. (1994). Clinical hypnosis as a nondeceptive placebo: Empirically derived techniques. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37: 95-106. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.1994.10403122
  107. Kirsch I., Montgomery G., Sapirstein G. (1995). Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cogni-tive-Behavioural Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63: 214-220. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.63.2.214
  108. Kirsch I., Lynn S.J. (1998). Dissociation theories of hypnosis. Psychological Bulle-tin, 123: 100-115. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.123.1.100
  109. Kirsch I., Wickless C., Moffitt K.H. (1999). Expectancy and suggestibility: Are the effects of environmental enhancement due to detection? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47(1): 40-45. DOI: 10.1080/00207149908410021
  110. Kirsch I., Mazzoni G., Roberts K., Dienes Z., Hallquist M. N., Williams J. (2008). Slipping into trance. Contemporary Hypnosis, 25(3-4): 202-209.
  111. Kirsch I., Cardeña E., Derbyshire E.S., Dienes Z., Heap M., Kallio S., Mazzoni G., Naish P., Oakley D., Potter C., Walters V., Whalley M. (2011). Definitions of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability and their Relation to Suggestion and Suggestibil-ity: A Consensus Statement. Contemporary Hypnosis and Integrative Therapy, 28(2): 107-115.
  112. Kirsch I., Kong J., Sadler P., Spaeth R., Cook A., Kaptchuk T., Gollub R. (2014). Expectancy and conditioning in placebo analgesia: Separate or connected pro-cesses? Psychology of Consciousness, 1(1): 51-59.
  113. Koivisto M., Kirjanen S., Revonsuo A., Kallio S. (2013). A preconscious neural mechanismof hypnotically altered colors: a double case study. PLoS one, 8(8): e70900.
  114. Kosslyn S.M., Thompson W.L., Costantini-Ferrando M.F., Spiegel D. (2000). Hypnotic visual illusion alters color processing in the brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157: 1279-1284.
  115. Krippner S. (2000). Cross-cultural perspectives on transpersonal hypnosis, in Leskowitz E., Transpersonal hypnosis: Gateway to body, mind, and spirit (pp. 141–162). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC.
  116. Krummenacher P., Candia V., Folkers G., Schedlowski M., Schönbächler G. (2010). Prefrontal cortex modulates placebo analgesia. Pain, 148: 368-374.
  117. Landry M., Appourchaux K., Raz A. (2014). Elucidating unconscious processing with instrumental hypnosis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 785.
  118. Lau H.C., Passingham R.E. (2006). Relative blindsight in normal observes and the neural correlate of visual consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 103(49): 18763-18768.
  119. Laureys S., Perrin F., Brédart S. (2007). Self-consciousness in non-communicative patients. Consciousness and Cognition, 16: 722-741.
  120. Lichtenberg P., Bachner-Melman R., Ebstein R.P. Crawford H.J. (2004). Hypnotic susceptibility: Multidimensional relationships with Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, COMT polymorphisms, absorption, and attentional characteristics. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 52: 47-72.
  121. Lifshitz M., Cusumano E.P., Raz A. (2013). Hypnosis as neurophenomenology. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7: 469.
  122. Lutz A., Lachaux J.P., Martinerie J., Varela F.J. (2005). Guiding the study of brain dynamics by using first-person data: Synchrony patterns correlate with ongoing conscious states during a simple visual task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(3): 1568-1591.
  123. Lynn S.J., Rhue J.W. (1991). Theories of Hypnosis: Current models and perspec-tives. New York: The Guilford Press.
  124. Lynn S.J., Kirsch I., Knox J., Fassler O., Lillienfeld S.O. (2007). Hypnosis and neuroscience: Implications for the altered state debate, in Jamieson G.A., Hyp-nosis and conscious states: The cognitive neuroscience perspective (pp. 145-166). New York: Oxford University Press.
  125. Lynn S.J., Boycheva E., Barnes S. (2008). To Assess or Not Assess Hypnotic Sug-gestibility? That is the Question. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 51(2): 161-165. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2008.10401658
  126. Mazzoni G., Rotriquenz E., Carvalho C., Vannucci M., Roberts K., Kirsch I. (2009). Suggested visual hallucinations in and out of hypnosis. Consciousness and Cognition, 18: 494-499.
  127. Mazzoni G., Venneri A., McGeown W.J., Kirsch I. (2013). Neuroimaging resolution of the altered state hypothesis. Cortex, 49: 400-410.
  128. McConkey K.M., Barnier A. (2004). The highly hypnotisable person: Unity and diversity in behaviour and experience, in Heap R., Brown R., Oakley D.A., The highly hypnotizable person: Theoretical, experimental and clinical issues (pp. 61-84). London: Brunner-Routledge.
  129. McGeown W.J., Venneri A., Kirsch I., Nocetti L., Roberts K., Foan L., Mazzoni G. (2012). Suggested visual hallucination without hypnosis enhances activity in visual areas of the brain. Consciousness and Cognition, 21: 100-116.
  130. McGlashan T.H., Evans F.J., Orne M.T. (1969). The nature of hypnotic analgesia and placebo response to experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 31: 227-246.
  131. Mendelsohn A., Chalamish Y., Solomonovich A., Dudai Y. (2008). Mesmerizing memories: Brain substrates of episodic memory suppression in posthypnotic amnesia. Neuron, 57(1): 159-170.
  132. Milling L.S., Reardon J.M., Carosella G.M. (2006). Mediation and moderation of psychological pain treatments: Response expectancies and hypnotic suggestibility. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 74: 253-262. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.2.253
  133. Moncrieff J., Wessely S., Hardy R. (2004). Active placebos versus antidepressants for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
  134. Montgomery G.H., Schnur J.B., David D. (2011). The impact of hypnotic suggest-ibility in clinical care settings. International Journal of Clinical and Experi-mental Hypnosis, 59: 294-309. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2011.570656
  135. Muller K., Bacht K., Schramm S., Seitz R.J. (2012). The facilitating effect of clini-cal hypnosis on motor imagery: An fMRI study. Behavioural Brain Research, 231(1): 164-169.
  136. Noble J., McConkey K.M. (1995). Hypnotic sex change: creating and challenging a delusion in the laboratory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104: 69-74. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.104.1.69
  137. Nordby H., Hugdahl K., Jasiukaitis P., Spiegel D. (1999). Effects of hypnotizability on performance of a stroop task and event-related potentials. Perceptual and Motor Skill, 88: 819-830.
  138. Norman D.A., Shallice T. (1986). Attention to action: willed and automatic control behavior, in Schwarz G.E., Shapiro D., Consciousness and self-regulation, (Vol. 4. pp. 1-18). New York: Plenum Press.
  139. Oakley D.A. (2008). Hypnosis, trance, and suggestion: Evidence from neuroimag-ing, in Nash M.R., Barnier A.J., The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis (pp. 365-392). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  140. Oakley D.A. (2009). Hypnosis and conversion hysteria: a unifying model. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 4: 243-265. DOI: 10.1080/135468099395954
  141. Oakley D.A., Halligan P. (2010). Psychophysiological foundations of hypnosis and suggestion, in Lynn S.J., Rhue J.W., Kirsch I., Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis (pp. 79-177). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  142. Oakley D.A., Halligan P.W. (2013). Hypnotic suggestion: opportunities for cogni-tive neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14: 565-576.
  143. Palva S., Palva J.M. (2007). New vistas for alpha-frequency band oscillations. Trends in Neurosciences, 30, 150-158.
  144. Patterson D.R., Jensen M.P. (2003). Hypnosis and clinical pain. Psychological Bul-letin, 129: 495-521. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.495
  145. Paus T. (2000). Functional anatomy of arousal and attention systems in the human brain. Progress in Brain Research, 126: 65-77. DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6123(00)26007-X
  146. Pekala R.J., Forbes E.J. (1997). Types of hypnotically (un)susceptible individuals as a function of phenomenological experience: towards a typology of hypnotic types. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 39: 212-224. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.1997.10403386
  147. Piccione C., Hilgard E.R., Zimbardo P.G. (1989). On the degree of stability of measured hypnotizability over a 25-year period. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56: 289-295. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.289
  148. Price D.D. (1996). Hypnotic analgesia: Psychological and neural mechanisms, in Barber J., Hypnosis and suggestion in the treatment of pain (pp. 67-84). New York: Norton.
  149. Putnam F.W. (1997). Dissociation in children and adolescents: A developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Press.
  150. Rahmanovic A., Barnier A.J., Cox R.E., Langdon R.A., Coltheart M. (2012). “That’s not my arm”: a hypnotic analogue of somatoparaphrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 17(1): 36-63. DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2011.564925.
  151. Rainville P., Duncan G.H., Price D.D., Carrier B., Bushnell C.M. (1997). Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science, 277: 968-971.
  152. Rainville P., Hofbauer R.K., Bushnell M.C., Duncan G.H., Price D.D. (2002). Hypnosis modulates activity in brain structures involved in the regulation of consciousness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(6): 887-901. DOI: 10.1162/089892902760191117
  153. Rainville P., Price D.D. (2003). Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51(2): 105-129.
  154. Raz A. (2004). Atypical attention: Hypnosis and conflict resolution, in Posner M.I., Cognitive neuroscience of attention (pp. 420-429). New York: Guilferd Press.
  155. Raz A., Fan J., Posner M.I. (2005). Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(28): 9978-9983.
  156. Raz A., Fan J., Posner M.I. (2006). Neuroimaging and genetic associations of at-tentional and hypnotic processes. Journal of Physiology, Paris, 99: 483-491.
  157. Reed G.F. (1977). The obsessional-compulsive experience: a phenomenological reemphasis. PPR, 37: 381-384. DOI: 10.2307/2106664
  158. Revonsuo A. (2000). Prospects for a scientific research program on consciousness, in Metzinger T., Neural correlates of consciousness: Empirical and conceptual questions (pp. 57-75). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  159. Reyher J. (1962). A paradigm for determining the clinical relevance of hypnotical-ly induced psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 59(4): 344-352.
  160. Rief W., Glombiewsky J.A. (2012). The hidden effects of blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trials: An experimental investigation. Pain, 153: 2473-2477.
  161. Rominger C., Weiss E.M., Nagl S., Niederstätter H., Parson W., Papousek, I. (2014). Carriers of the COMT MET/MET allele have higher degrees of hypnotizability, provided that they have good attentional control: A case of gene-trait interaction. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypno-sis, 62(4): 455-482. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2014.931177
  162. Rosenthal D. (2005). Consciousness and mind. Oxford: University Press.
  163. Sarbin T.R., Coe W.C. (1972). Hypnosis: A Social Psychological Analysis of Influ-ence Communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  164. Scacchia P. (2016). Ipnosi come “stato modificato di coscienza”: un ponte tra ri-cerca sperimentale e prassi psicoterapeutica. Prima parte. Ipnosi, 2, 61-71. DOI: 10.3280/IPN2016-002004
  165. Schumaker J. (1991). The adaptative value of suggestibility and dissociation, in Schumaker I.F., Human suggestibility (pp. 109-131). New York: Routledge.
  166. Semmens-Wheeler R., Dienes Z., Duka T. (2013). Alcohol increases hypnotic sus-ceptibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3): 1082-1091.
  167. Sheehan P.W., McConkey K.M. (1982/1996). Hypnosis and experience: the explo-ration of phenomena and process. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
  168. Sliwinski J., Elkins G.R. (2013). Enhancing placebo effects: insights from social psychology. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 55(3): 236-248. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.2012.740434
  169. Spanos N.P., Perlini A.H., Robertson L.A. (1989). Hypnosis, suggestion, and pla-cebo in the reduction of experimental pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98: 285-293. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.98.3.285
  170. Spiegel D., Albert L.H. (1983). Naloxone fails to reverse hypnotic alleviation of chronic pain. Psychopharmacology, 81: 140-143. DOI: 10.1007/BF00429008
  171. Spiegel D., Hunt T., Dondershine H.E. (1988). Dissociation and hypnotizability in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145: 301-305.
  172. Spiegel D., Cardeña E. (1990). New uses of hypnosis in the treatment of posttrau-matic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51: 39-43.
  173. Spiegel D., King R. (1992). Hypnotizability and CSF HVA levels among psychiatric patients. Biological Psychiatry, 31: 95-98. DOI: 10.1016/0006-3223(92)90009-O
  174. Spiegel H., Spiegel D. (2004). Trance and treatment. Clinical uses of hypnosis. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  175. Stein N., Sprenger C., Scholz J., Wiech K., Bingel U. (2012). White matter integrity of the descending pain modulatory system is associated with interindividual differences in placebo analgesia. Pain, 153: 2210-2217.
  176. Sutcliffe J.P. (1958). Hypnotic behavior: fantasy or simulation? Unpublished doc-toral dissertation. Australia: University of Sydney.
  177. Tart C.T. (1967). Psychedelic experiences associated with a novel hypnotic proce-dure, mutual hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 10, 65-78. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.1967.10401952
  178. Tart C.T. (1970). Transpersonal potentialities of deep hypnosis. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 2: 27-40.
  179. Teachman B.A., Drabick D.A., Hershenberg R., Vivian D., Wolfe B.E., Goldfried M.R. (2012). Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Research and Clinical Prac-tice: Introduction to the Special Section. Psychotherapy, 49(2): 97-100.
  180. Tellegen A., Atkinson G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experi-ences (“absorption”), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Ab-normal Psychology, 83(3): 268-277.
  181. Terhune D.B., Cardeña E. (2010). Differential patterns of spontaneous experiential response to a hypnotic induction: A latent profile analysis. Consciousness and Cognition, 19: 1140-1150.
  182. Terhune D.B., Cardeña E. (2015). Dissociative subtypes in posttraumatic stress disorder and hypnosis: Neurocognitive parallels and clinical implications. Cur-rent Directions in Psychological Science, 24(6): 452-457. DOI: 10.1177/0963721415604611
  183. Terhune D.B., Cardeña E., Lindgren M. (2011a). Dissociated control as a signature of typological variability in high hypnotic suggestibility. Consciousness and Cognition, 20: 727-736.
  184. Terhune D.B., Cardeña E., Lindgren M. (2011b). Dissociative tendencies and indi-vidual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 16: 113-135. DOI: 10.1080/13546805.2010.503048
  185. Terhune D.B., Cardeña E., Lindgren M. (2011c). Differential frontal-parietal phase synchrony durng hypnosis as a function of hypnotic susceptibility. Psychophysiology, 48(10): 1444-1447.
  186. Terhune D.B., Cardeña E. (2015). Heterogeneity in high hypnotic suggestibility and the neurophysiology of hypnosis. Neurophysiologie Clinique Clinical Neu-rophysiology, 45(2): 177-178.
  187. Tononi G., Edelman G.M. (1998). Consciousness and the integration of infor-mation in the brain. Advances in Neurology, 77: 245-279.
  188. Tseng W. (1997). Overview: Culture and psychopathology, in Tseng W.S., Streltzer J., Culture and Psychopathology (pp. 1-27). New York, NY: Brunner.
  189. Van Dyck R., Hoogduin K. (1990). Hypnosis: placebo or nonplacebo? American Journal of Psychotherapy, 44(3): 396-404.
  190. Vanhaudenhuyse A., Laureys S., Faymonville M.E. (2014). Neurophysiology of hypnosis. Neurophysiologie Clinique Clinical Neurophysiology, 44(4): 343-353.
  191. Varela F.J., Shear J. (1999). First-person methodologies: What, why, and how? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6: 1-14.
  192. Varga K., Józsa E., Kekecs Z. (2014). Comparative analysis of phenomenological patterns of hypnotists and subjects: An interactional perspective. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(3): 308-319.
  193. Vermetten E., Bremner D.J. (2004). Functional brain imaging and the induction of traumatic recall: a cross-correlational review between neuroimaging and hyp-nosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 52(3): 280-312. DOI: 10.1080/0020714049052352
  194. Wagstaff G.F. (1998). The semantics and physiology of hypnosis as an altered state: Towards a definition of hypnosis. Contemporary Hypnosis, 15: 149-165.
  195. Wagstaff G.F. (2000). On the physiological redefinition of hypnosis: A reply to Gruzelier. Contemporary Hypnosis, 17(4): 154-162.
  196. Wagstaff G.F., Cole J.C., Brunas-Wagstaff J. (2007). Effect of hypnotic induction and hypnotic depth on phonemic fluency: A test of the frontal inhibition account of hypnosis. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 7: 27-40.
  197. Wagstaff G.F. (2014). On the Centrality of the Concept of an Altered State to Def-initions of Hypnosis. Journal of Mind-Body Regulation, 2(2): 90-108.
  198. Weitzenhoffer A.M. (1962). The nature of hypnosis: Part I. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5: 295-321. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.1963.10402307
  199. Weitzenhoffer A.M. (1980). Hypnotic susceptibility revisited. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22: 130-134. DOI: 10.1080/00029157.1980.10403217
  200. Woody E.Z., McConkey K.M. (2003). What we don’t know about the Brain and Hypnosis, but need to: A View from the Buckhorn Inn. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51(3): 309-338.
  201. Woody E.Z., Lewis V., Snider L., Grant H., Kamath M., Szechtman H. (2005). In-duction of compulsive-like washing by blocking the feeling of knowing: An ex-perimental test of the security-motivation hypothesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 1: 11. DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-1-11
  202. Woody E.Z., Szechtman H. (2005). Motivation, time course, and heterogeneity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Response to Taylor, McKay, and Abramowitz (2005). Psychological Review, 112: 658-661. DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.112.3.658
  203. Woody E.Z., Sadler P. (2008). Dissociation theories of hypnosis, in Nash M.R., Barnier A.J., The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis (pp. 81-110). Oxford, UK: Ox-ford University Press.
  204. Wyzenbeek M., Bryant R.A. (2012). The cognitive demands of hypnotic response. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 60(1): 67-80. DOI: 10.1080/00207144.2011.622197.
  205. Zeig J.K. (2006). Confluence: The selected papers of Jeffrey K. Zeig, Volume 1. Phoenix, AZ: Zeig, Tucker & Theisen, Inc.

Paolo Scacchia, Ipnosi come "stato modificato di coscienza": un ponte tra ricerca sperimentale e prassi psicoterapeutica (seconda parte) in "IPNOSI" 1/2017, pp 5-39, DOI: 10.3280/IPN2017-001001