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Inclusive Appropriation and the Double Freedom of Knowledge: on the Capitalist exploitation of non-for profit software, contents and data producers
Author/s: Mariano Zukerfeld 
Year:  2014 Issue: 133 Language: English 
Pages:  14 Pg. 145-158 FullText PDF:  878 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SL2014-133010
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During the last decades, the widespread opposition to the dramatic expansion of intellectual property helped to set a quasi-public sphere of non-commercial digital knowledge. Nevertheless, the flows of "free knowledge" also enabled the development of a (partially) unexplored region of the private and for-profit sphere. A new kind of business methods is being shaped. Somehow, it is based on the disguised exploitation of unpaid digital work, carried out mostly in the leisure time, with non-commercial purposes. This ‘exploitation side’ has only received attention recently. However, the literature still lacks of: i) a name and a definition of the phenomenon, ii) a sound theoretical foundation and iii) an empirical description of its varieties. Thus, this paper tries to shed some light in these three regards by: i) advancing and defining the concept of Inclusive Appropriation (IA); ii) anchoring the IA in the Double Freedom of Knowl-edge (inspired to Marx’s double freedom of labor power) and iii) analyzing three modes of IA, respectively associated with software, contents and data.
Keywords: Inclusive Appropriation, Double Freedom of Knowledge, exploitation, software, business, unpaid digital work

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Mariano Zukerfeld, in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL LAVORO " 133/2014, pp. 145-158, DOI:10.3280/SL2014-133010


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