The affirmation of the Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has revitalized the interest for control in the workplace, that has always been a core concern of organizational studies. Through empirical data, this article analyses the way in which the three forms of work control (direct supervision, bureaucratic and social) have been redefined in four mechanical or automotive companies located in the Bologna area that have initiated a process of technological transformation ascribable to I4.0. Our findings suggest that the adoption of new technologies enables the consolidation of differ-ent forms of bureaucratic control, while opening up the possibility of strengthening all forms of control and leading to a tighter integration of the mutual links between them. At the same time, however, we find that the mode and the extent to which such strengthening and reconfiguration occur depend on the organizational con-text in which these technologies are implemented.
Keywords: Control, Industry 4.0, lean production, sociomateriality