Extended contact: mediators, moderators and interventions in naturalistic contexts

Author/s Loris Vezzali, Dino Giovannini
Publishing Year 2013 Issue 2013/2
Language Italian Pages 32 P. 209-240 File size 304 KB
DOI 10.3280/RIP2013-002001
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

In 1997, Wright, Aron, McLaughlin-Volpe and Ropp proposed the extended contact hypothesis, stating that simply knowing that one’s own ingroup friend has one or more outgroup friends is sufficient to reduce prejudice. In this work, we review the studies that have been conducted to test the extended contact hypothesis in the fifteen years from its initial formulation. After commenting upon the usefulness of approaches based on extended contact to improve intergroup relations and introducing research examining its effectiveness on a wide number of outcome variables, we present the main mediators and moderators of its effects. Finally, before drawing the conclusions where we offer suggestions for future research, we describe some interventions conducted in naturalistic contexts based on the theoretical premises of extended contact.

Keywords: Extended contact, intergroup contact, indirect contact, intergroup relations, prejudice reduction.

  1. Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York: Addison-Wesley.
  2. Altemeyer, R. (1998). The other “authoritarian personality”. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, (Vol. 30, pp. 47-91). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  3. Andrighetto, L., Mari, S., Volpato, C., & Behluli, B. (2012). Reducing competitive victimhood in Kosovo: The role of extended contact and common ingroup identity. Political Psychology, 33, pp. 513-529. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00887.x
  4. Aron, A., McLaughlin-Volpe, T., Mashek, D., Lewandowski, G., Wright, S.C., & Aron, E.N. (2004). Including others in the self. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology (Vol. 15, pp. 101-132). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
  5. Batson, C.D. (2010). Empathy-induced altruistic motivation. In M. Mikulincer & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature (pp. 15-34). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  6. Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
  7. Brown, R., & Hewstone, M. (2005). An integrative theory of intergroup contact. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 255-343.
  8. Cameron, L., & Rutland, A. (2006). Extended contact through story reading in school: Reducing children’s prejudice toward the disabled. Journal of Social Issues, 62, 469-488. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00469.x
  9. Cameron, L., Rutland, A., & Brown, R. (2007). Promoting children’s positive intergroup attitudes towards stigmatized groups: Extended contact and multiple classification skills training. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 454-466. DOI: 10.1177/0165025407081474
  10. Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Brown, R., & Douch, R. (2006). Changing children’s intergroup attitudes toward refugees: Testing different models of extended contact. Child Development, 77, 1208-1219. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00929.x
  11. Cameron, L., Rutland, A., Hossain, R., & Petley, R. (2011). When and why does extended contact work? The role of high quality direct contact and group norms in the development of positive ethnic intergroup attitudes amongst children. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 193-206. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210390535
  12. Capozza, D., Vezzali, L., Trifiletti, E., Falvo, R., & Favara, I. (2010). Improving intergroup relationships within and outside the contact situation: The role of common ingroup identity and emotions of anxiety and empathy. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 17, 17-36.
  13. Christ, O., Hewstone, M., Tausch, N., Wagner, U, Voci, A., Hughes, J., & Cairns, E. (2010). Direct contact as a moderator of extended contact effects: Cross-sectional and longitudinal impact on outgroup attitudes, behavioral intentions, and attitude certainty. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1662-1674. DOI: 10.1177/0146167210386969
  14. Crisp, R.J., Husnu, S., Meleady, R., Stathi, S., & Turner, R.N. (2010). From imagery to intention: A dual route model of imagined contact effects. European Review of Social Psychology, 21, 188-236. DOI: 10.1080/10463283.2010.543312
  15. De Tezanos-Pinto, P., Bratt, C., & Brown, R. (2010). What will the others think? In-group norms as a mediator of the effects of intergroup contact. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 507-523. DOI: 10.1348/014466609X471020
  16. Dhont, K., Roets, A., & Van Hiel, A. (2011). Opening closed minds: The combined effects of intergroup contact and need for closure on prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 514-528. DOI: 10.1177/0146167211399101
  17. Dhont, K., & Van Hiel, A. (2011). Direct contact and authoritarianism as moderators between extended contact and reduced prejudice: Lower threat and greater trust as mediators. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 223-237. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210391121
  18. Dovidio, J.F., Eller, A., & Hewstone, M. (2011). Improving intergroup relations through direct, extended and other forms of in direct contact. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 147-160. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210390555
  19. Eller, A., Abrams, D., & Zimmermann, A. (2011). Two degrees of separation: A longitudinal study of actual and perceived extended international contact. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 175-191. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210391120
  20. Esses, V.M., & Dovidio, J.F. (2002). The role of emotions in determining willingness to engage in intergroup contact. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 28, 1202-1214. DOI: 10.1177/01461672022812006
  21. Fazio, R.H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behaviour: The MODE model as an integrative framework. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 75-109). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
  22. Feddes, A.R., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and extended friendship effects on minority and majority children’s interethnic attitudes: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 80, 377-390. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01266.x
  23. Gaertner, S.L., & Dovidio, J.F. (2000). Reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
  24. Giovannini, D., & Vezzali, L. (Eds.) (2011). Sicurezza, coesione sociale e immigrazione. Prospettive teoriche e analisi di un caso. Milano: Unicopli.
  25. Gomez, A., Tropp, L.R., & Fernandez, S. (2011). When extended contact opens the door to future contact: Testing the effects of extended contact on attitudes and intergroup expectancies in majority and minority groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 161-173. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210391119
  26. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
  27. Hewstone, M., & Brown, R. (1986). Contact is not enough: An intergroup perspective on the contact hypothesis. In M. Hewstone & R. Brown (Eds.), Contact and conflict in intergroup encounters (pp. 1-44). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  28. Hodson, G. (2011). Do ideologically intolerant people benefit from intergroup contact? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 154-159. DOI: 10.1177/0963721411409025
  29. Hodson, G., Harry, H., & Mitchell, A. (2009). Independent benefits of contact and friendship on attitudes toward homosexuals among authoritarians and highly identified heterosexuals. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 509-525. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.558
  30. Hutchison, P., & Rosenthal, H.E.S. (2011). Prejudice againsts Muslims: Anxiety as a mediator between intergroup contact and attitudes, perceived group variability and behavioural intentions. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34, 40-61. DOI: 10.1080/01419871003763312
  31. Jetten, J., Spears, R, & Manstead, A.S.R. (1996). Intergroup norms and intergroup discrimination: Distinctive self-categorisation and social identity effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1222-1233. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1222
  32. Kruglanski, A.W. (1989). Lay epistyemic and human knowledge: Cognitive and motivational bases. New York: Plenum.
  33. Levy, S.R., West, T.L., Bigler, R.S., Karafantis, D.M., Ramirez, L., & Velilla, E. (2005). Messages about the uniqueness and similarities of people: Impact on U. S. Black and Latino youth. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 714-733. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2005.08.004
  34. Lewicki, R.J., & Wiethoff, C. (2000). Trust, trust development, and trust repair. In M. Deutsch & P. Coleman (Eds.), The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (pp. 86-107). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  35. Leyens, J.Ph., Demoulin, S., Vaes, J., Gaunt, R., & Paladino, M.P. (2007). Infra-humanization: The wall of group differences. Social Issues and Policy Review, 1, 139-172. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2409.2007.00006.x
  36. Liebkind, K., & McAlister, A.L. (1999). Extended contact through peer modeling to promote tolerance in Finland. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 765-780. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(199908/09)29:5/6<765::AIDEJSP958>3.0.CO;2-J
  37. Mazziotta, A., Mummendey, A., & Wright, S.C. (2011). Vicarious intergroup contact effects: Applying social-cognitive theory to intergroup contact research. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 255-274. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210390533
  38. Miller, N. (2002). Personalization and the promise of contact theory. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 387-410. DOI: 10.1111/1540-4560.00267
  39. Ortiz, M., & Harwood, J. (2007). A social cognitive theory approach to the effect of mediated intergroup contact on intergroup attitudes. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 51, 615-631. DOI: 10.1080/08838150701626487
  40. Paluck, E.L. (2009). Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: A field experiment in Rwanda. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 574-587. DOI: 10.1037/a0011989
  41. Paluck, E.L. (2010). It is better not to talk? Group polarization, extended contact, and perspective taking in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1170-1185. DOI: 10.1177/0146167210379868
  42. Paluck, E.L. (2011). Peer pressure against prejudice: A high school field experiment examining social network change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 350-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2010.11.017
  43. Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., & Cairns, E. (2007). Direct and indirect intergroup friendship effects: Testing the moderating role of the affective-cognitive bases of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1406-1420. DOI: 10.1177/0146167207304788
  44. Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., & Voci, A. (2004). Effects of direct and indirect cross group friendship on judgements of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The mediating role of anxiety-reduction mechanism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 770-786. DOI: 10.1177/0146167203262848
  45. Pettigrew, T.F. (1997). Generalized intergroup contact effects on prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 173-185. DOI: 10.1177/0146167297232006
  46. Pettigrew, T.F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 65-85. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.65
  47. Pettigrew, T.F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40, 55-65. DOI: 10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.55
  48. Pettigrew, T.F., Christ, O., Wagner, U., & Stellmacher, J. (2007). Direct and indirect intergroup contact effects on prejudice: A normative interpretation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31, 411-425. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.11.003
  49. Pettigrew, T.F., & Tropp, L.R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 751-783. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751
  50. Pettigrew, T.F., & Tropp, L.R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 922-934. DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.504
  51. Pettigrew, T.F., Tropp, L.R., Wagner, U., & Christ, O. (2011). Recent advances in intergroup contact theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 271-280. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.03.001
  52. Plant, E.A., & Devine, P.G. (2003). The antecedents and implications of interracial anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 790-801. DOI: 10.1177/0146167203029006011
  53. Reis, H.T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 367-389). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
  54. Roets, A., & Van Hiel, A. (2006). Need for closure relations with authoritarianism, conservative beliefs and racism: The impact of urgency and permanence tendencies. Psychologica Belgica, 46, 235-352.
  55. Schiappa, E., Gregg, P.B., & Hewes, D.E. (2005). The parasocial contact hypothesis. Communication monographs, 72, 92-115. DOI: 10.1080/0363775052000342544
  56. Schofield, J.W., Hausmann, L.R.M., Ye, F., & Woods, R.L. (2010). Intergroup friendships on campus: Predicting close and casual friendships between White and African american first-year college students. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 13, 585-602. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210362437
  57. Sedikides, C., Olsen, N., & Reis, H.T. (1993). Relationships as natural categories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 71-82. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.1.71
  58. Sharp, M., Voci, A., & Hewstone, M. (2011). Individual difference variables as moderators of the effect of extended cross-group friendship on prejudice: Testing the effects of public self-consciousness and social comparison. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 207-221. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210391122
  59. Shelton, J.N., & Richeson, J.A. (2005). Intergroup contact and pluralistic ignorance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 91-107. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.91
  60. Shook, N.J., & Fazio, R.H. (2011). Social network integration: A comparison of same-race and interracial roommate relationships. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 399-406. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210382127
  61. Stephan, W.G., & Stephan, C.W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 157-175. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01134.x
  62. Stephan, W.G., & Stephan, C.W. (2000). An integrated theory of prejudice. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 23-45). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  63. Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  64. Tam, T., Hewstone, M., Kenworthy, J.B., & Cairns, E. (2009). Intergroup trust in Northern Ireland. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 45-59. DOI: 10.1177/0146167208325004
  65. Tausch, N., Hewstone, M., Schmid, K., Hughes, J., & Cairns, E. (2011). Extended contact as a function of closeness of relationship with ingroup contacts. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 239-254. DOI: 10.1177/1368430210390534
  66. Tropp, L.R. (2008). The role of trust in intergroup contact: Its significance and implications for improving relations between groups. In U. Wagner, L.R. Tropp, G. Finchilescu, & C. Tredoux (Eds.), Improving intergroup relations: Building on the legacy of Thomas F. Pettigrew (pp. 91-106). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  67. Tropp, L.R., & Wright, S.C. (2001). Ingroup identification as the inclusion of ingroup in the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 585-600. DOI: 10.1177/0146167201275007
  68. Turner, R.N., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. (2007). Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 369-388. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.3.369
  69. Turner, R.N., Hewstone, M., Voci, A., Paolini, S., & Christ, O. (2007). Reducing prejudice via direct and extended cross-group friendship. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 212-255. DOI: 10.1080/10463280701680297
  70. Turner, R.N., Hewstone, M., Voci, A., & Vonofakou, C. (2008). A test of the extended contact hypothesis: The mediating role of intergroup anxiety, perceived ingroup and outgroup norms, and inclusion of the outgroup in the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 843-860. DOI: 10.1037/a0011434
  71. Vezzali, L., Andrighetto, L., Trifiletti, E., & Visintin, E.P. (2012). Perceiving status (in)stability in a low status group: The effects of identification on explicit and implicit intergroup attitudes. Social Psychology, 43, 33-40. DOI: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000078
  72. Vezzali, L., & Giovannini, D. (2011). Intergroup contact and reduction of explicit and implicit prejudice towards immigrants: A study with Italian businessmen owning small and medium enterprises. Quality and Quantity, 45, 213-222. DOI: 10.1007/s11135-010-9366-0
  73. Vezzali, L., & Giovannini, D. (2012). Secondary transfer effect of intergroup contact: The role of intergroup attitudes, intergroup anxiety and perspective-taking. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 22, 125-144. DOI: 10.1002/casp.1103
  74. Vezzali, L., Giovannini, D., & Capozza, D. (2012). Social antecedents of children’s implicit prejudice: Direct contact, extended contact, explicit and implicit teachers’ prejudice. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 569-581. DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2011.631298
  75. Vezzali, L., Giovannini, D., & Capozza, D. (2010). Longitudinal effects of contact on intergroup relations: The role of majority and minority group membership and intergroup emotions. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 20, 462-479. DOI: 10.1002/casp.1058
  76. Vezzali, L., Stathi, S., & Giovannini, D. (2012). Indirect contact through book reading: Improving adolescents’ attitudes and behavioral intentions toward immigrants. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 148-162. DOI: 10.1002/pits.20621
  77. Voci, A., & Hewstone, M. (2003). Intergroup contact and prejudice toward immigrants in Italy: The mediation role of anxiety and the moderation role of group salience. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 6, 37-54. DOI: 10.1177/1368430203006001011
  78. Voci, A., & Pagotto, L. (2010). Il pregiudizio: Che cosa e, come si riduce. Bari: Editori Laterza.
  79. Wright, S.C., Aron, A., McLaughlin-Volpe, T., & Ropp, S.A. (1997). The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 73-90. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.73.1.73

Loris Vezzali, Dino Giovannini, Contatto esteso: mediatori, moderatori e interventi in contesti naturalistici in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 2/2013, pp 209-240, DOI: 10.3280/RIP2013-002001