Empirical evidence of Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation from Italian firms

Author/s Andrea Buratti, Giancarlo Ferrero
Publishing Year 2017 Issue 2017/4
Language English Pages 23 P. 151-173 File size 120 KB
DOI 10.3280/MC2017-004008
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The purposes of this research are to validate the construct of Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation (EMO), evaluate the relationship between EMO and market performance and analyze firm characteristics that are related to higher levels of EMO. The data consisted of 545 Italian SMEs with limited liability. We use structural equation modelling to test the construct validity and the relationship between EMO and market performance. Then, we analyze whether EMO is related to certain firm characteristics. The results demonstrate a new operationalization of EMO and a positive relationship between this and market performance. Also, product type and firm objectives are the characteristics that seem to have higher levels of EMO. In the discussion section, we report some advice for owners, managers and consultants, as well as limitations of this study and potential ideas for future research.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation, Strategic Orientation, Second order model

  1. Anderson J.C., Gerbing D.W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3): 411-423, DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
  2. Andersson S., Florén H. (2011). Differences in managerial behavior between small international and non-international firms. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 9(3): 233-258,
  3. Andersson S., Tell J. (2009). The relationship between the manager and growth in small firms. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 16(4): 586-598, DOI: 10.1108/14626000911000938
  4. Anwar M.N., Daniel E. (2016). Entrepreneurial marketing in online businesses: the case of ethnic minority entrepreneurs in the UK. Qualitative Market Research: an International Journal, 19(3): 310-338, DOI: 10.1108/QMR-04-2015-0029
  5. Appiah-Adu K., Singh S. (1998). Customer orientation and performance: a study of SMEs. Management Decision, 36(6): 385-394, DOI: 10.1108/00251749810223592
  6. Armstrong J. S., Overton T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3): 396-402, DOI: 10.2307/3150783
  7. Atuahene-Gima K., Ko A. (2001). An empirical investigation of the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurship orientation alignment on product innovation. Organization Science, 12(1): 54-74,
  8. Baker W. E., Sinkula J. M. (2009). The complementary effects of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(4): 443-464,
  9. Berry L.L. (1995). Relationship marketing of services – growing interest, emerging perspectives. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science: Official Publication of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(4): 236-245, DOI: 10.1177/009207039502300402
  10. Bocconcelli R., Cioppi M., Fortezza F., Francioni B., Pagano A., Savelli E. and Splendiani S. (2016). SMEs and marketing: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Management Reviews,
  11. Brown T.A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  12. Byrne B.M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New Jersey, USA: Routledge.
  13. Cadogan J.W., Boso N., Story V.M. and Adeola O. (2016). Export strategic orientation-performance relationship: examination of its enabling and disenabling boundary conditions. Journal of Business Research, 69(11): 5046-5052,
  14. Carson D., McCartan-Quinn D. (1995). Non-practice of theoretically based marketing in small businesses – Issues arising and their implications. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 3(4): 24-32.
  15. Carter M. (2008). Entrepreneurship and marketing. In: Casson M., Yeung B., Basu A., Wadeson N.C. (Eds.). Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  16. Chen F.F., Sousa K.H. and West S. G. (2005). Teacher’s corner: testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 12(3): 471-492,
  17. Chen H.L., Hsu C.-H. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance in non-profit service organizations: contingent effect of market orientation. The Service Industries Journal, 33(5): 445-466, DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2011.622372
  18. Corbetta P. (1999). Metodologia e tecniche della ricerca sociale. Bologna: il Mulino.
  19. Covin J.G., Slevin D.P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1): 75-87,
  20. Deacon J.H. (2002). Contextual marketing – commonalties and personalities – fuzzy experiential excellence. Paper presented at the UIC Research Symposium: American Academy of Marketing, San Diego State University, CA.
  21. Dess G.G., Lumpkin G.T. and Covin J.G. (1997). Entrepreneurial strategy making and firm performance: Tests of contingency and configurational models. Strategic Management Journal, 18(9): 677-695,
  22. Dess G.G., Robinson R.B. (1984). Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures: the case of the privately_held firm and conglomerate business unit. Strategic Management Journal, 5(3): 265-273,
  23. Edwards J.R., Bagozzi R.P. (2000). On the nature and direction of relationships between constructs and measures. Psychological Methods, 5(2): 155, DOI: 10.1037/1082-989X.5.2.155
  24. Egan J. (2008). Relationship marketing: exploring relational strategies in marketing. Harlow: Pearson education.
  25. Faroque A.R. (2015). Strategic orientations and international opportunity recognition and development in emerging country born globals: the moderating role of environmental dynamism. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24(2): 163-186, DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2015.067258
  26. Farrell M.A., Oczkowski E. and Kharabsheh R. (2008). Market orientation, learning orientation and organisational performance in international joint ventures. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(3): 289-308, DOI: 10.1108/13555850810890066
  27. Ferrero G., Fortezza F. (2007). Importanza ed elementi di criticità del marketing strategico nelle PMI. Picccola Impresa/Small Business, (2),
  28. Ferrero G., Fortezza F. and Savelli E. (2012). Necessità di un nuovo approccio al mercato delle PI. Il contributo della letteratura di marketing. Piccola Impresa/Small Business, (1),
  29. Ferrero G. and Buratti A. (2016). Caratteristiche distintive e performance delle piccole imprese italiane orientate all’entrepreneurial marketing. Picccola Impresa/Small Business, (3),
  30. Fiore A.M., Niehm L.S., Hurst J.L., Son J. and Sadachar A. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing: scale validation with small,independently-owned businesses. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness 7(4): 63-86.
  31. Fornell C., Larcker D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50, DOI: 10.2307/3151312
  32. Frishammar J., Andersson S. (2009). The overestimated role of strategic orientations for international performance in smaller firms. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 7(1): 57-77,
  33. Gaddefors J., Anderson A. R. (2009). Market creation: the epitome of entrepreneurial marketing practices. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 10(1): 19-39, DOI: 10.1108/01443571010996217
  34. Gilmore A. (2010). Reflections on methodologies for research at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 12(1): 11-20, DOI: 10.1108/14715201011060876
  35. Gilmore A. (2011). Entrepreneurial and SME marketing. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 13(2): 137-145, DOI: 10.1108/14715201111176426
  36. Grinstein A. (2008). The relationships between market orientation and alternative strategic orientations: a meta_analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 42(1/2): 115-134, DOI: 10.1108/03090560810840934
  37. Grönroos C. (1991). The marketing strategy continuum: towards a marketing concept for the 1990s. Management Decision, 29(1), DOI: 10.1108/00251749110139106
  38. Gross N., Carson D. and Jones R. (2014). Beyond rhetoric: re-thinking entrepreneurial marketing from a practice perspective. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 16(2): 105-127, DOI: 10.1108/JRME-01-2014-0003
  39. Gummesson E. (1987). The new marketing-developing long-term interactive relationships. Long Range Planning, 20(4): 10-20, DOI: 10.1016/0024-6301(87)90151-8
  40. Hair J.F., Black W.C. and Babin B. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: a global perspective. Pearson Education.
  41. Hakala H. (2011). Strategic orientations in management literature: three approaches to understanding the interaction between market, technology, entrepreneurial and learning orientations. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(2): 199-217,
  42. Hallbäck J., Gabrielsson P. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing strategies during the growth of international new ventures originating in small and open economies. International Business Review, 22(6): 1008-1020,
  43. Hambrick D.C. (1981). Strategic awareness within top management teams. Strategic Management Journal, 2(3): 263-279,
  44. Hansen D.J., Eggers F. (2010). The marketing/entrepreneurship interface: a report on the “Charleston Summit”. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 12(1): 42-53, DOI: 10.1108/14715201011060867
  45. Hill J., Wright L.T. (2000). Defining the scope of entrepreneurial marketing: a qualitative approach. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 08(01): 23-46,
  46. Hills G.E., Hultman C.M., Kraus S. and Schulte R. (2010). History, theory and evidence of entrepreneurial marketing-an overview. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 11(1): 3-18, DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2010.029765
  47. Hills G.E., LaForge R.W. (1992). Research at marketing interface to advance entrepreneurship theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(3): 33-60.
  48. Hisrich R.D. (1992). The Need for Marketing in Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 7(3):53-57, DOI: 10.1108/08858629210035427
  49. Hult G.T.M., Ketchen D.J. (2001). Does market orientation matter? A test of the relationship between positional advantage and performance. Strategic management journal, 22(9): 899-906,
  50. Ionitã D. (2012). Entrepreneurial marketing: A new approach for challenging times. Management & Marketing, 7(1): 131-150.
  51. Jayachandran S., Sharma S., Kaufman P. and Raman P. (2005). The role of relational information processes and technology use in customer relationship management. Journal of Marketing, 69(4): 177-192,
  52. Jogaratnam G. (2017). The effect of market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and human capital on positional advantage: Evidence from the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 60: 104-113,
  53. Jones R., Rowley J. (2011). Entrepreneurial marketing in small businesses: a conceptual exploration. International Small Business Journal, 29(1): 25-36, DOI: 10.1177/026624261036974
  54. Jones R., Rowley J. (2012). Card-based game methods: exploring SME entrepreneurial marketing practice. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 16(4): 485-502, DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2013.740470
  55. Jones R., Suoranta M. and Rowley J. (2013). Strategic network marketing in technology SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(5-6): 671-697, DOI: 10.1080/0267257X.2013.797920
  56. Kilenthong P., Hills G.E. and Hultman C.M. (2015). An empirical investigation of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions. Journal of International Marketing Strategy, 3(1): 18-22.
  57. Kilenthong P., Hultman C.M. and Hills G.E. (2016). Entrepreneurial marketing behaviours: impact of firm age, firm size and firm’s founder. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 18(1): 127-145, DOI: 10.1108/JRME-05-2015-0029
  58. Kocak A. (2004). Developing and validating a scale for entrepreneurial marketing. Paper presented at the University of Illinois Chicago Research Symposium, Metz, France.
  59. Kraus S., Filser M., Eggers F., Hills G.E. and Hultman C.M. (2012). The entrepreneurial marketing domain: a citation and co-citation analysis. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 14(1): 6-26, DOI: 10.1108/14715201211246698
  60. Kraus S., Harms R. and Fink M. (2009). Entrepreneurial marketing: moving beyond marketing in new ventures. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 11(1): 19-34, DOI: 10.1504/IJEIM.2010.029766
  61. Kwak H., Jaju A., Puzakova M. and Rocereto J. F. (2013). The connubial relationship between market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 21(2): 141-162, DOI: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679210202
  62. Lumpkin G.T., Dess G.G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135-172, DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1996.9602161568
  63. MacCallum R. C., Roznowski M. and Necowitz L.B. (1992). Model modifications in covariance structure analysis: the problem of capitalization on chance. Psychological Bulletin, 111(3): 490-504.
  64. Martinez V., Aldrich H.E. (2011). Networking strategies for entrepreneurs: balancing cohesion and diversity. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 17(1): 7-38, DOI: 10.1108/13552551111107499
  65. Matsuno K., Mentzer J.T. and Özsomer A. (2002). The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity and market orientation on business performance. Journal of marketing, 66(3): 18-32,
  66. Mattiacci A., Ceccotti F. (2005). Lo sviluppo del marketing nella Pmi: riflessioni a margine di un’esperienza d’impresa. Micro & Macro Marketing, 14(1): 65-106, DOI: 10.1431/19908
  67. Miles M., Gilmore A., Harrigan P., Lewis G. and Sethna Z. (2015). Exploring entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 23(2): 94-111, DOI: 10.1080/0965254X.2014.914069
  68. Morris M.H., Schindehutte M. and LaForge R.W. (2002). Entrepreneurial marketing: a construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4): 1-19, DOI: 10.1080/10696679.2002.11501922
  69. Morrish S.C. (2011). Entrepreneurial marketing: a strategy for the twenty_first century? Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 13(2): 110-119, DOI: 10.1108/14715201111176390
  70. Morrish S.C., Miles M.P. and Deacon J.H. (2010). Entrepreneurial marketing: acknowledging the entrepreneur and customer-centric interrelationship. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 18(4): 303-316, DOI: 10.1080/09652541003768087
  71. Narver J.C., Slater S.F. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54(4): 20-35, DOI: 10.2307/1251757
  72. Ojala A. (2009). Internationalization of knowledge-intensive SMEs: the role of network relationships in the entry to a psychically distant market. International Business Review, 18(1): 50-59,
  73. Rajagopalan N. (1997). Strategic orientations, incentive plan adoptions, and firm performance: evidence from electric utility firms. Strategic Management Journal, 18(10): 761-785,
  74. Rajagopalan N., Finkelstein S. (1992). Effects of strategic orientation and environmental change on senior management reward system. Strategic Management Journal, 13(S1): 127-142,
  75. Reijonen H., Laukkanen T., Komppula R. and Tuominen S. (2012a). Are growing SMEs more market-oriented and brand-oriented? Journal of Small Business Management, 50(4): 699-716,
  76. Reijonen H., Szandra P., Saku H. and Laukkanen T. (2012b). Entrepreneurial marketing orientation (EMO): An empirical test. Paper presented at the EMAC, Lisbon.
  77. Roy S.K., Eshghi A. (2013). Does relationship quality matter in service relationships? Journal of Strategic Marketing, 21(5): 443-458, DOI: 10.1080/0965254X.2013.801612
  78. Ruane J.M. (2016). Introducing social research methods: essentials for getting the edge. Chichester, Uk: Wiley.
  79. Schmid J. (2012). Entrepreneurial marketing – often described rarely measured. Paper presented at the Academy of Marketing Conference, Southampton, UK.
  80. Shiratina A., Narimawati U. and Suryana Y. (2016). The chronology of entrepreneurial marketing definitions. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 14(2): 843-850.
  81. Siguaw J.A., Simpson P.M. and Enz C.A. (2006). Conceptualizing innovation orientation: a framework for study and integration of innovation research. Academy of Management Review, 23(6): 556-574,
  82. Slater S.F., Narver J.C. (1995). Market orientation and the learning organization. Journal of Marketing, 63-74, DOI: 10.2307/1252120
  83. Smart D.T., Conant J.S. (1994). Entrepreneurial orientation, distinctive marketing competencies and organizational performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 10(3): 28,
  84. Snow C.C., Hambrick D.C. (1980). Measuring organizational strategies: some theoretical and methodological problems. Academy of Management Review, 5(4): 527-538,
  85. Song L., Jing L. (2017). Strategic orientation and performance of new ventures: empirical studies based on entrepreneurial activities in China. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1-24,
  86. Stokes D. (2000). Entrepreneurial marketing: a conceptualisation from qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(1): 47-54, DOI: 10.1108/13522750010310497
  87. Thomas L.C., Painbéni S. and Barton H. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing within the French wine industry. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 19(2): 238-260, DOI: 10.1108/13552551311310392
  88. Tuccillo C., Siano A. (2014). Il marketing e la comunicazione nelle piccole e medie imprese: uno studio comparativo tra imprese italiane ed inglesi. Mercati e competitività, (2), 103-127, DOI: 10.3280/MC2014-002006
  89. Vega-Vázquez M., Cossío-Silva F.-J. and Revilla-Camacho M.-Á. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation–hotel performance: has market orientation anything to say? Journal of Business Research, 69(11): 5089-5094,
  90. Venkatraman N., Grant J.H. (1986). Construct measurement in organizational strategy research: A critique and proposal. Academy of Management Review, 11(1): 71-87.
  91. Walker E., Brown A. (2004). What Success Factors are Important to Small Business Owners? International Small Business Journal, 22(6): 577-594, DOI: 10.1177/0266242604047411
  92. Wei, Y.S., & Atuahene-Gima, K. (2009). The moderating role of reward systems in the relationship between market orientation and new product performance in China. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2): 89-96,
  93. Whalen P., Uslay C., Pascal V.J., Omura G., McAuley A., Kasouf C.J., Jones R., Hultman C.M., Hills G.E. and Hansen D.J. (2016). Anatomy of competitive advantage: towards a contingency theory of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(1): 5-19, DOI: 10.1080/0965254X.2015.1035036
  94. Wiklund J., Shepherd D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1): 71-91,

Andrea Buratti, Giancarlo Ferrero, Empirical evidence of Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation from Italian firms in "MERCATI & COMPETITIVITÀ" 4/2017, pp 151-173, DOI: 10.3280/MC2017-004008